전체메뉴
검색
Article Search

JMB Journal of Microbiolog and Biotechnology

QR Code QR Code

Research article

References

  1. Knudsen GR, Eschen DJ, Dandurand LM, Bin L. 1991. Potential for biocontrol of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum through colonization of sclerotia by Trichoderma harzianum. Plant Dis. 75: 446-470.
    CrossRef
  2. Elad Y. 2000. Trichoderma harzianum T39 preparation for biocontrol of plant diseases - control of Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Cladosporium fulvum. Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 10: 499-507.
    CrossRef
  3. Hadar Y, Harman GE, Taylor AG. 1984. Evaluation of Trichoderma koningii and T. harzianum from New York soils for biological control of seed rot caused by Phythium spp. Phytopathology 74: 106-110.
    CrossRef
  4. Elad Y, Chet I, Katan J. 1980. Trichoderma harzianum: a biocontrol agent effective against Sclerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia solani. Phytopathology 70: 119-121.
    CrossRef
  5. Dandurand LM, Mosher RD, Knudsen GR. 2000. Combined effects of Brassica napus seed meal and Trichoderma harzianum on two soilborne plant pathogens. Can. J. Microbiol. 46: 10511057.
    CrossRef
  6. Chet I, Baker R. 1980. Induction of suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia solani in soil. Phytopathology 70: 994-998.
    CrossRef
  7. Wells HD, Bell DK, Jaworski CA. 1972. Efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum as a biocontrol for Sclerotium rolfsii. Phytopathology 62: 442-447.
    CrossRef
  8. Sivan A, Chet I. 1989. The possible role of competition between Trichoderma harzianum and Fusarium oxysporum on rhizosphere colonization. Phytopathology 79: 198-203.
    CrossRef
  9. Knudsen GR, Bin L. 1990. Effects of temperature, soil moisture, and wheat bran on growth of Trichoderma harzianum from alginate pellets. Phytopathology 80: 724-727.
    CrossRef
  10. Sohlenius B. 1980. Abundance, biomass and contribution to energy flow by soil nematodes in terrestrial ecosystems. Oikos 34: 186-194.
    CrossRef
  11. Procter DLC. 1990. Global overview of the functional roles of soil-living nematodes in terrestrial communities and ecosystems. J. Nematol. 22: 1-7.
    Pubmed PMC
  12. Bongers T, Ferris H. 1999. Nematode community structure as a bioindicator in environmental monitoring. Trends Ecol. Evol. 14: 224-228.
    CrossRef
  13. Ingham RE, Trofymow JA, Ingham ER, Coleman DC. 1985. Interactions of bacteria, fungi, and their nematode grazers:effects on nutrient cycling and plant growth. Ecol. Monogr. 55: 119-140.
    CrossRef
  14. Bae Y-S, Knudsen GR. 2001. Influence of a fungus-feeding nematode on growth and biocontrol efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum. Phytopathology 91: 301-306.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Freckman DW, Caswell EP. 1985. The ecology of nematodes in agroecosystem. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 23: 275-296.
    CrossRef
  16. Chen J, Ferris H. 1999. The effects of nematode grazing on nitrogen mineralization during fungal decomposition of organic matter. Soil Biol. Biochem. 31: 1265-1279.
    CrossRef
  17. Neher DA, Weicht TR, Savin M, Görres JH, Amador JA. 1999. Grazing in a porous environment. 2. Nematode community structure. Plant Soil 212: 85-99.
    CrossRef
  18. Yeates GW, Wardle DA, Watson RN. 1999. Responses of soil nematode populations, community structure, diversity and temporal variability to agricultural intensification over a seven-year period. Soil Biol. Biochem. 31: 1721-1733.
    CrossRef
  19. Yeates GW, Wardle DA, Watson RN. 1993. Relationships between nematodes, soil microbial biomass and weedmanagement strategies in maize and asparagus cropping systems. Soil Biol. Biochem. 25: 869-876.
    CrossRef
  20. Steinberger Y, Sarig S. 1993. Response by soil nematode populations and the soil microbial biomass to a rain episode in the hot, dry Negev desert. Biol. Fertil. Soils 16: 188-192.
    CrossRef
  21. Nieminen JK, Setälä H. 2001. Bacteria and microbial-feeders modify the performance of a decomposer fungus. Soil Biol. Biochem. 33: 1703-1712.
    CrossRef
  22. Mikola J, Setälä H. 1998. No evidence of trophic cascades in an experimental microbial-based soil food web. Ecology 79:153-164.
    CrossRef
  23. Fravel DR, Marois JJ, Lumsden RD, Connick WJ. 1985. Encapsulation of potential biocontrol agents in an alginateclay matrix. Phytopathology 75: 774-777.
    CrossRef
  24. Knudsen GR, Eschen DJ, Dandurand LM, Wang ZG. 1991. Method to enhance growth and sporulation of pelletized biocontrol fungi. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57: 2864-2867.
    Pubmed PMC
  25. Bae Y-S, Knudsen GR. 2000. Cotransformation of Trichoderma harzianum with β-glucuronidase and green fluorescent protein genes provides a useful tool for monitoring fungal growth and activity in natural soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 810-815.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  26. Orr KA, Knudsen GR. 2004. Use of green fluorescent protein and image analysis to quantify proliferation of Trichoderma harzianum in nonsterile soil. Phytopathology 94: 1383-1389.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  27. Papavizas GC. 1981. Survival of Trichoderma harzianum in soil and in pea and bean rhizospheres. Phytopathology 71:121-125.
  28. van Veen JA, Paul EA. 1979. Conversion of biovolume measurements of soil organisms, grown under various moisture tensions, to biomass and their nutrient content. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37: 686-692.
    Pubmed PMC
  29. Daniel O, Schönholzer F, Zeyer J. 1995. Quantification of fungal hyphae in leaves of deciduous trees by automated image analysis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61: 3910-3918.
    Pubmed PMC
  30. Yeates GW, Bongers T, Goede RG, Freckman DW, Georgieva SS. 1993. Feeding habits in soil nematode families and genera - an outline for soil ecologists. J. Nematol. 25:315-331.
    Pubmed PMC
  31. Trinci APJ, Collinge AJ. 1974. Occlusion of the septal pores of damaged hyphae of Neurospora crassa by hexagonal crystals. Protoplasma 80: 57-67.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  32. Watters MK, Griffiths AJF. 2001. Tests of a cellular model for constant branch distribution in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 1788-1792.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  33. Ujcová E, Fencil Z, Musílková M, Seichert L. 1980. Dependence of release of nucleotides from fungi on fermentor turbine speed. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 22: 237-241.
    CrossRef
  34. Lockwood JL, Filonow AB. 1981. Responses of fungi to nutrient-limiting conditions and to inhibitory substances in natural habitats, pp. 1-61. In Alexander M (ed.). Advances in Microbial Ecology, 1st Ed. Plenum Press, New York and London.
    CrossRef
  35. Eastburn DM, Butler EE. 1988. Microhabitat characterization of Trichoderma harzianum in natural soil: evaluation of factors affecting distribution. Soil Biol. Biochem. 20: 547-553.
    CrossRef

Article

Research article

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2018; 28(5): 831-838

Published online May 28, 2018 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1712.12042

Copyright © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Differential Selection by Nematodes of an Introduced Biocontrol Fungus vs. Indigenous Fungi in Nonsterile Soil

Tae Gwan Kim 1* and Guy R. Knudsen 2

1Department of Microbiology, Pusan National University, Pusan 46241, Republic of Korea 2Soil and Land Resources Division, Department of Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339, USA

Correspondence to:Tae Gwan  Kim
tkim@pusan.ac.kr

Received: December 20, 2017; Accepted: February 23, 2018

Abstract

Trophic interactions of introduced biocontrol fungi with soil animals can be a key determinant in the fungal proliferation and activity. This study investigated the trophic interaction of an introduced biocontrol fungus with soil nematodes. The biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum ThzID1-M3 and the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchoides sp. (10 per gram of soil) were added to nonsterile soil, and microbial populations were monitored for 40 days. Similar results were obtained when the experiment was duplicated. ThzID1-M3 stimulated the population growth of indigenous nematodes (p < 0.05), regardless of whether Aphelenchoides sp. was added. Without ThzID1-M3, indigenous nematodes did not increase in number and the added Aphelenchoides sp. nematodes almost disappeared by day 10. With ThzID1-M3, population growth of nematodes was rapid between 5 and 10 days after treatment. ThzID1-M3 biomass peaked on day 5, dropped at day 10, and then almost disappeared at day 20, which was not influenced by the addition of nematodes. In contrast, a large quantity of ThzID1-M3 hyphae were present in a heat-treated soil in which nematodes were eliminated. Total fungal biomass in all treatments peaked on day 5 and subsequently decreased. Addition of nematodes increased the total fungal biomass (p < 0.05), but ThzID1-M3 addition did not affect the fungal biomass. Hyphae of total fungi when homogenously distributed did not support the nematode population growth; however, hyphae of the introduced fungus did when densely localized. The results suggest that soil fungivorous nematodes are an important constraint on the hyphal proliferation of fungal agents introduced into natural soils.

Keywords: Biocontrol fungus, fungivorous nematode, trophic interaction, differential selection

References

  1. Knudsen GR, Eschen DJ, Dandurand LM, Bin L. 1991. Potential for biocontrol of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum through colonization of sclerotia by Trichoderma harzianum. Plant Dis. 75: 446-470.
    CrossRef
  2. Elad Y. 2000. Trichoderma harzianum T39 preparation for biocontrol of plant diseases - control of Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Cladosporium fulvum. Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 10: 499-507.
    CrossRef
  3. Hadar Y, Harman GE, Taylor AG. 1984. Evaluation of Trichoderma koningii and T. harzianum from New York soils for biological control of seed rot caused by Phythium spp. Phytopathology 74: 106-110.
    CrossRef
  4. Elad Y, Chet I, Katan J. 1980. Trichoderma harzianum: a biocontrol agent effective against Sclerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia solani. Phytopathology 70: 119-121.
    CrossRef
  5. Dandurand LM, Mosher RD, Knudsen GR. 2000. Combined effects of Brassica napus seed meal and Trichoderma harzianum on two soilborne plant pathogens. Can. J. Microbiol. 46: 10511057.
    CrossRef
  6. Chet I, Baker R. 1980. Induction of suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia solani in soil. Phytopathology 70: 994-998.
    CrossRef
  7. Wells HD, Bell DK, Jaworski CA. 1972. Efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum as a biocontrol for Sclerotium rolfsii. Phytopathology 62: 442-447.
    CrossRef
  8. Sivan A, Chet I. 1989. The possible role of competition between Trichoderma harzianum and Fusarium oxysporum on rhizosphere colonization. Phytopathology 79: 198-203.
    CrossRef
  9. Knudsen GR, Bin L. 1990. Effects of temperature, soil moisture, and wheat bran on growth of Trichoderma harzianum from alginate pellets. Phytopathology 80: 724-727.
    CrossRef
  10. Sohlenius B. 1980. Abundance, biomass and contribution to energy flow by soil nematodes in terrestrial ecosystems. Oikos 34: 186-194.
    CrossRef
  11. Procter DLC. 1990. Global overview of the functional roles of soil-living nematodes in terrestrial communities and ecosystems. J. Nematol. 22: 1-7.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  12. Bongers T, Ferris H. 1999. Nematode community structure as a bioindicator in environmental monitoring. Trends Ecol. Evol. 14: 224-228.
    CrossRef
  13. Ingham RE, Trofymow JA, Ingham ER, Coleman DC. 1985. Interactions of bacteria, fungi, and their nematode grazers:effects on nutrient cycling and plant growth. Ecol. Monogr. 55: 119-140.
    CrossRef
  14. Bae Y-S, Knudsen GR. 2001. Influence of a fungus-feeding nematode on growth and biocontrol efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum. Phytopathology 91: 301-306.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Freckman DW, Caswell EP. 1985. The ecology of nematodes in agroecosystem. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 23: 275-296.
    CrossRef
  16. Chen J, Ferris H. 1999. The effects of nematode grazing on nitrogen mineralization during fungal decomposition of organic matter. Soil Biol. Biochem. 31: 1265-1279.
    CrossRef
  17. Neher DA, Weicht TR, Savin M, Görres JH, Amador JA. 1999. Grazing in a porous environment. 2. Nematode community structure. Plant Soil 212: 85-99.
    CrossRef
  18. Yeates GW, Wardle DA, Watson RN. 1999. Responses of soil nematode populations, community structure, diversity and temporal variability to agricultural intensification over a seven-year period. Soil Biol. Biochem. 31: 1721-1733.
    CrossRef
  19. Yeates GW, Wardle DA, Watson RN. 1993. Relationships between nematodes, soil microbial biomass and weedmanagement strategies in maize and asparagus cropping systems. Soil Biol. Biochem. 25: 869-876.
    CrossRef
  20. Steinberger Y, Sarig S. 1993. Response by soil nematode populations and the soil microbial biomass to a rain episode in the hot, dry Negev desert. Biol. Fertil. Soils 16: 188-192.
    CrossRef
  21. Nieminen JK, Setälä H. 2001. Bacteria and microbial-feeders modify the performance of a decomposer fungus. Soil Biol. Biochem. 33: 1703-1712.
    CrossRef
  22. Mikola J, Setälä H. 1998. No evidence of trophic cascades in an experimental microbial-based soil food web. Ecology 79:153-164.
    CrossRef
  23. Fravel DR, Marois JJ, Lumsden RD, Connick WJ. 1985. Encapsulation of potential biocontrol agents in an alginateclay matrix. Phytopathology 75: 774-777.
    CrossRef
  24. Knudsen GR, Eschen DJ, Dandurand LM, Wang ZG. 1991. Method to enhance growth and sporulation of pelletized biocontrol fungi. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57: 2864-2867.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  25. Bae Y-S, Knudsen GR. 2000. Cotransformation of Trichoderma harzianum with β-glucuronidase and green fluorescent protein genes provides a useful tool for monitoring fungal growth and activity in natural soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 810-815.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  26. Orr KA, Knudsen GR. 2004. Use of green fluorescent protein and image analysis to quantify proliferation of Trichoderma harzianum in nonsterile soil. Phytopathology 94: 1383-1389.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  27. Papavizas GC. 1981. Survival of Trichoderma harzianum in soil and in pea and bean rhizospheres. Phytopathology 71:121-125.
  28. van Veen JA, Paul EA. 1979. Conversion of biovolume measurements of soil organisms, grown under various moisture tensions, to biomass and their nutrient content. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37: 686-692.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  29. Daniel O, Schönholzer F, Zeyer J. 1995. Quantification of fungal hyphae in leaves of deciduous trees by automated image analysis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61: 3910-3918.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  30. Yeates GW, Bongers T, Goede RG, Freckman DW, Georgieva SS. 1993. Feeding habits in soil nematode families and genera - an outline for soil ecologists. J. Nematol. 25:315-331.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  31. Trinci APJ, Collinge AJ. 1974. Occlusion of the septal pores of damaged hyphae of Neurospora crassa by hexagonal crystals. Protoplasma 80: 57-67.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  32. Watters MK, Griffiths AJF. 2001. Tests of a cellular model for constant branch distribution in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 1788-1792.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  33. Ujcová E, Fencil Z, Musílková M, Seichert L. 1980. Dependence of release of nucleotides from fungi on fermentor turbine speed. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 22: 237-241.
    CrossRef
  34. Lockwood JL, Filonow AB. 1981. Responses of fungi to nutrient-limiting conditions and to inhibitory substances in natural habitats, pp. 1-61. In Alexander M (ed.). Advances in Microbial Ecology, 1st Ed. Plenum Press, New York and London.
    CrossRef
  35. Eastburn DM, Butler EE. 1988. Microhabitat characterization of Trichoderma harzianum in natural soil: evaluation of factors affecting distribution. Soil Biol. Biochem. 20: 547-553.
    CrossRef