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References

  1. Hao X, Doddema HJ, van Groenestijn JW. 1997. Conditions and mechanisms affecting simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in a Pasveer oxidation ditch. Bioresour. Technol. 59: 207-215.
    CrossRef
  2. Peng Y, Hou H, Wang S, Cui Y, Zhiguo Y. 2008. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal in pilot-scale anaerobic-anoxic oxidation ditch system. J. Environ. Sci. 20: 398-403.
    CrossRef
  3. Liu Y, Shi H, Xia L, Shi H, Shen T, Wang Z, et al. 2010. Study of operational conditions of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in a Carrousel oxidation ditch for domestic wastewater treatment. Bioresour. Technol. 101: 901-906.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Gillot S, Heduit A. 2000. Effect of air flow rate on oxygen transfer in an oxidation ditch equipped with fine bubble diffusers and slow speed mixers. Water Res. 34: 1756-1762.
    CrossRef
  5. Ye L, Shao M-F, Zhang T, Tong AHY, Lok S. 2011. Analysis of the bacterial community in a laboratory-scale nitrification reactor and a wastewater treatment plant by 454pyrosequencing. Water Res. 45: 4390-4398.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Zhang T, Shao M-F, Ye L. 2012. 454 Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial diversity of activated sludge from 14 sewage treatment plants. ISME J. 6: 1137-1147.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  7. Wang X, Wen X, Criddle C, Wells G, Zhang J, Zhao Y. 2010. Community analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in activated sludge of eight wastewater treatment systems. J. Environ. Sci. 22: 627-634.
    CrossRef
  8. Johnson DR, Lee TK, Park J, Fenner K, Helbling DE. 2015. The functional and taxonomic richness of wastewater treatment plant microbial communities are associated with each other and with ambient nitrogen and carbon availability. Environ. Microbiol. 17: 4851-4860.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Saunders AM, Albertsen M, Vollertsen J, Nielsen PH. 2015. The activated sludge ecosystem contains a core community of abundant organisms. ISME J.
  10. APHA/AWWA/WEF. 2005. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public Health Association, the American Water Works Association, and the Water Environment Federation, Washington, DC.
  11. Claesson MJ, O’Sullivan O, Wang Q, Nikkilä J, Marchesi JR, Smidt H, et al. 2009. Comparative analysis of pyrosequencing and a phylogenetic microarray for exploring microbial community structures in the human distal intestine. PLoS One 4: e6669.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  12. Sogin ML, Morrison HG, Huber JA, Welch DM, Huse SM, Neal PR, et al. 2006. Microb ial diversity in the deep sea and the underexplored “rare biosphere”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103: 12115-12120.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  13. Cole JR, Wang Q, Cardenas E, Fish J, Chai B, Farris RJ, et al. 2009. The Ribosomal Database Project: improved alignments and new tools for rRNA analysis. Nucleic Acids Res. 37:D141-D145.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  14. Schloss PD, Westcott SL, Ryabin T, Hall JR, Hartmann M, Hollister EB, et al. 2009. Introducing mothur: open-source, platform-independent, community-supported software for describing and comparing microbial communities. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75: 7537-7541.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  15. Wang Q, Garrity GM, Tiedje JM, Cole JR. 2007. Naive Bayesian classifier for rapid assignment of rRNA sequences into the new bacterial taxonomy. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 5261-5267.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  16. Caporaso JG, Kuczynski J, Stombaugh J, Bittinger K, Bushman FD, Costello EK, et al. 2010. QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data. Nat. Methods 7: 335-336.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  17. Puig S, Van Loosdrecht M, Colprim J, Meijer S. 2008. Data evaluation of full-scale wastewater treatment plants by mass balance. Water Res. 42: 4645-4655.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Xia S, Liu J. 2004. An innovative integrated oxidation ditch with vertical circle for domestic wastewater treatment. Process Biochem. 39: 1111-1117.
    CrossRef
  19. Gao S-Y, Peng Y-Z, Wang S-Y, Jun Y. 2006. Novel strategy of nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater using pilot Orbal oxidation ditch. J. Environ. Sci. 18: 833-839.
    CrossRef
  20. Hu M, Wang X, Wen X, Xia Y. 2012. Microbial community structures in different wastewater treatment plants as revealed by 454-pyrosequencing analysis. Bioresour. Technol. 117: 72-79.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  21. Blackall LL, Burrell PC, Gwilliam H, Bradford D, Bond PL, Hugenholtz P. 1998. The u se o f 16S rDNA c lone l ibraries to describe the microbial diversity of activated sludge communities. Water Sci. Technol. 37: 451-454.
    CrossRef
  22. Chouari R, Le Paslier D, Daegelen P, Ginestet P, Weissenbach J, Sghir A. 2003. Molecular evidence for novel planctomycete diversity in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 7354-7363.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  23. Strous M, Fuerst JA, Kramer EH, Logemann S, Muyzer G, van de Pas-Schoonen KT, et al. 1999. Missing lithotroph identified as new planctomycete. Nature 400: 446-449.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  24. Chamchoi N, Nitisoravut S. 2007. Anammox enrichment from different conventional sludges. Chemosphere 66: 22252232.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  25. Feng Q, Han L, Nogi Y, Hong Q, Lv J. 2016. Flavobacterium lutivivi sp. nov., isolated from activated sludge. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 66: 1394-1400.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  26. Basson A, Flemming L, Chenia H. 2008. Evaluation of adherence, hydrophobicity, aggregation, and biofilm development of Flavobacterium johnsoniae-like isolates. Microb. Ecol. 55: 1-14.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  27. Jo SJ, Kwon H, Jeong S-Y, Lee C-H, Kim TG. 2016. Comparison of microbial communities of activated sludge and membrane biofilm in 10 full-scale membrane bioreactors. Water Res. 101: 214-225.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  28. Vandenberg O, Dediste A, Houf K, Ibekwem S, Souayah H, Cadranel S, et al. 2004. Arcobacter species in humans. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10: 1863-1867.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  29. Grehn M, von Graevenitz A. 1978. Search for Acinetobacter calcoaceticus sub sp. anitratus: enrichment of fecal samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 8: 342.
    Pubmed PMC
  30. Falk MW, Song K-G, Matiasek MG, Wuertz S. 2009. Microbial community dynamics in replicate membrane bioreactors –natural reproducible fluctuations. Water Res. 43: 842-852.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  31. Yadav TC, Khardenavis AA, Kapley A. 2014. Shifts in microbial community in response to dissolved oxygen levels in activated sludge. Bioresour. Technol. 165: 257-264.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  32. Ju F, Guo F, Ye L, Xia Y, Zhang T. 2014. Metagenomic analysis on seasonal microbial variations of activated sludge from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant over 4 years. Environ. Microbiol. Rep. 6: 80-89.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  33. Ye C, Yang X, Zhao F-J, Ren L. 2016. The shift of the microbial community in activated sludge with calcium treatment and its implication to sludge settleability. Bioresour. Technol. 207: 11-18.
    Pubmed CrossRef

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Article

Research article

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2017; 27(1): 141-148

Published online January 28, 2017 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1607.07007

Copyright © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Bacterial Community Shift during the Startup of a Full-Scale Oxidation Ditch Treating Sewage

Yajun Chen 1, 2, Lin Ye 1*, Fuzheng Zhao 1, Lin Xiao 1, Shupei Cheng 1 and Xu-Xiang Zhang 1

1State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Environmental Health Research Center, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, P.R. China, 2Jiangsu Environmental Industry Co. Ltd, Nanjing 210009, P.R. China

Received: July 4, 2016; Accepted: October 3, 2016

Abstract

The oxidation ditch (OD) is one of the most widely used processes for treating municipal
wastewater. However, the microbial communities in the OD systems have not been well
characterized, and little information about the shift of bacterial community during the startup
process of the OD systems is available. In this study, we investigated the bacterial community
changes during the startup period (over 100 days) of a full-scale OD. The results showed that
the bacterial community dramatically changed during the startup period. Similar to the
activated sludge samples in other studies, Proteobacteria (accounting for 26.3%-48.4%) was
the most dominant bacterial phylum in the OD system, but its relative abundance declined
nearly 40% during the startup process. It was also found that Planctomycetes proliferated
greatly (from 4.79% to 13.5%) and finally replaced Bacteroidetes as the second abundant
phylum in the OD system. Specifically, some bacteria affiliated with genus Flavobacterium
exhibited remarkable decreasing trends, whereas bacterial species belonging to the OD1
candidate division and Saprospiraceae family were found to increase during the startup
process. Despite of the bacterial community shift, the organic matter, nitrogen, and
phosphorus in the effluent were always in low concentrations, suggesting the functional
redundancy of the bacterial community. Moreover, by comparing with the bacterial
community in other municipal wastewater treatment bioreactors, some potentially novel
bacterial species were found to be present in the OD system. Collectively, this study improved
our understandings of the bacterial community structure and microbial ecology during the
startup of a full-scale wastewater treatment bioreactor.

Keywords: Oxidation ditch, bacterial community, activated sludge, municipal wastewater treatment

References

  1. Hao X, Doddema HJ, van Groenestijn JW. 1997. Conditions and mechanisms affecting simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in a Pasveer oxidation ditch. Bioresour. Technol. 59: 207-215.
    CrossRef
  2. Peng Y, Hou H, Wang S, Cui Y, Zhiguo Y. 2008. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal in pilot-scale anaerobic-anoxic oxidation ditch system. J. Environ. Sci. 20: 398-403.
    CrossRef
  3. Liu Y, Shi H, Xia L, Shi H, Shen T, Wang Z, et al. 2010. Study of operational conditions of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in a Carrousel oxidation ditch for domestic wastewater treatment. Bioresour. Technol. 101: 901-906.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Gillot S, Heduit A. 2000. Effect of air flow rate on oxygen transfer in an oxidation ditch equipped with fine bubble diffusers and slow speed mixers. Water Res. 34: 1756-1762.
    CrossRef
  5. Ye L, Shao M-F, Zhang T, Tong AHY, Lok S. 2011. Analysis of the bacterial community in a laboratory-scale nitrification reactor and a wastewater treatment plant by 454pyrosequencing. Water Res. 45: 4390-4398.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Zhang T, Shao M-F, Ye L. 2012. 454 Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial diversity of activated sludge from 14 sewage treatment plants. ISME J. 6: 1137-1147.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  7. Wang X, Wen X, Criddle C, Wells G, Zhang J, Zhao Y. 2010. Community analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in activated sludge of eight wastewater treatment systems. J. Environ. Sci. 22: 627-634.
    CrossRef
  8. Johnson DR, Lee TK, Park J, Fenner K, Helbling DE. 2015. The functional and taxonomic richness of wastewater treatment plant microbial communities are associated with each other and with ambient nitrogen and carbon availability. Environ. Microbiol. 17: 4851-4860.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Saunders AM, Albertsen M, Vollertsen J, Nielsen PH. 2015. The activated sludge ecosystem contains a core community of abundant organisms. ISME J.
  10. APHA/AWWA/WEF. 2005. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public Health Association, the American Water Works Association, and the Water Environment Federation, Washington, DC.
  11. Claesson MJ, O’Sullivan O, Wang Q, Nikkilä J, Marchesi JR, Smidt H, et al. 2009. Comparative analysis of pyrosequencing and a phylogenetic microarray for exploring microbial community structures in the human distal intestine. PLoS One 4: e6669.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  12. Sogin ML, Morrison HG, Huber JA, Welch DM, Huse SM, Neal PR, et al. 2006. Microb ial diversity in the deep sea and the underexplored “rare biosphere”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103: 12115-12120.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  13. Cole JR, Wang Q, Cardenas E, Fish J, Chai B, Farris RJ, et al. 2009. The Ribosomal Database Project: improved alignments and new tools for rRNA analysis. Nucleic Acids Res. 37:D141-D145.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  14. Schloss PD, Westcott SL, Ryabin T, Hall JR, Hartmann M, Hollister EB, et al. 2009. Introducing mothur: open-source, platform-independent, community-supported software for describing and comparing microbial communities. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75: 7537-7541.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  15. Wang Q, Garrity GM, Tiedje JM, Cole JR. 2007. Naive Bayesian classifier for rapid assignment of rRNA sequences into the new bacterial taxonomy. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 5261-5267.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  16. Caporaso JG, Kuczynski J, Stombaugh J, Bittinger K, Bushman FD, Costello EK, et al. 2010. QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data. Nat. Methods 7: 335-336.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  17. Puig S, Van Loosdrecht M, Colprim J, Meijer S. 2008. Data evaluation of full-scale wastewater treatment plants by mass balance. Water Res. 42: 4645-4655.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Xia S, Liu J. 2004. An innovative integrated oxidation ditch with vertical circle for domestic wastewater treatment. Process Biochem. 39: 1111-1117.
    CrossRef
  19. Gao S-Y, Peng Y-Z, Wang S-Y, Jun Y. 2006. Novel strategy of nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater using pilot Orbal oxidation ditch. J. Environ. Sci. 18: 833-839.
    CrossRef
  20. Hu M, Wang X, Wen X, Xia Y. 2012. Microbial community structures in different wastewater treatment plants as revealed by 454-pyrosequencing analysis. Bioresour. Technol. 117: 72-79.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  21. Blackall LL, Burrell PC, Gwilliam H, Bradford D, Bond PL, Hugenholtz P. 1998. The u se o f 16S rDNA c lone l ibraries to describe the microbial diversity of activated sludge communities. Water Sci. Technol. 37: 451-454.
    CrossRef
  22. Chouari R, Le Paslier D, Daegelen P, Ginestet P, Weissenbach J, Sghir A. 2003. Molecular evidence for novel planctomycete diversity in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 7354-7363.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  23. Strous M, Fuerst JA, Kramer EH, Logemann S, Muyzer G, van de Pas-Schoonen KT, et al. 1999. Missing lithotroph identified as new planctomycete. Nature 400: 446-449.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  24. Chamchoi N, Nitisoravut S. 2007. Anammox enrichment from different conventional sludges. Chemosphere 66: 22252232.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  25. Feng Q, Han L, Nogi Y, Hong Q, Lv J. 2016. Flavobacterium lutivivi sp. nov., isolated from activated sludge. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 66: 1394-1400.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  26. Basson A, Flemming L, Chenia H. 2008. Evaluation of adherence, hydrophobicity, aggregation, and biofilm development of Flavobacterium johnsoniae-like isolates. Microb. Ecol. 55: 1-14.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  27. Jo SJ, Kwon H, Jeong S-Y, Lee C-H, Kim TG. 2016. Comparison of microbial communities of activated sludge and membrane biofilm in 10 full-scale membrane bioreactors. Water Res. 101: 214-225.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  28. Vandenberg O, Dediste A, Houf K, Ibekwem S, Souayah H, Cadranel S, et al. 2004. Arcobacter species in humans. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10: 1863-1867.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  29. Grehn M, von Graevenitz A. 1978. Search for Acinetobacter calcoaceticus sub sp. anitratus: enrichment of fecal samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 8: 342.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  30. Falk MW, Song K-G, Matiasek MG, Wuertz S. 2009. Microbial community dynamics in replicate membrane bioreactors –natural reproducible fluctuations. Water Res. 43: 842-852.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  31. Yadav TC, Khardenavis AA, Kapley A. 2014. Shifts in microbial community in response to dissolved oxygen levels in activated sludge. Bioresour. Technol. 165: 257-264.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  32. Ju F, Guo F, Ye L, Xia Y, Zhang T. 2014. Metagenomic analysis on seasonal microbial variations of activated sludge from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant over 4 years. Environ. Microbiol. Rep. 6: 80-89.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  33. Ye C, Yang X, Zhao F-J, Ren L. 2016. The shift of the microbial community in activated sludge with calcium treatment and its implication to sludge settleability. Bioresour. Technol. 207: 11-18.
    Pubmed CrossRef