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References

  1. Beekes M, McBride PA. 2007. The spread of prions through the body in naturally acquired transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. FEBS J. 274: 588-605.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Bosque PJ, Ryou C, Telling G, Peretz D, Legname G, DeArmond SJ, Prusiner SB. 2002. Prions in skeletal muscle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 3812-3817.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  3. Grathwohl KU, Horiuchi M, Ishiguro N, Shinagawa M. 1996. Improvement of PrPSc-detection in mouse spleen early at the preclinical stage of scrapie with collagenase-completed tissue homogenization and Sarkosyl-NaCl extraction of PrPSc. Arch. Virol. 141: 1863-1874.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Jackson KS, Yeom J, Han Y, Bae Y, Ryou C. 2013. Preference toward a polylysine enantiomer in inhibiting prions. Amino Acids 44: 993-1000.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Lee H-M, Ryou C. 2014. Targeting of poly(L-lysine) to organs that propagate prions. J. Bioactive Compat. Polym. 29: 432-444.
    CrossRef
  6. Prusiner SB. 1998. Prions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:13363-13383.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  7. Ryou C. 2007. Prions and prion diseases: fundamentals and mechanistic details. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 17: 1059-1070.
    Pubmed
  8. Ryou C. 2010. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, pp. 151-172. In Saleh M (ed.). Molecular Aspects of Infectious Diseases. Nova Science Publisher, Hauppauge, New York.
  9. Ryou C. 2011. Prion Diseases. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, Wiley, Chichester, UK.
  10. Ryou C, Mays CE. 2010. Prions pp. 129-149. In S al eh M (ed.), Molecular Aspects of Infectious Diseases. Nova Science Publisher, Hauppauge, New York.
  11. Ryou C, T itl ow W B, M ays CE, Bae Y, Kim S. 2 011. T he suppression of prion propagation using poly-L-lysine by targeting plasminogen that stimulates prion protein conversion. Biomaterials 32: 3141-3149.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  12. Tatzelt J, Groth DF, Torchia M, Prusiner SB, DeArmond SJ. 1999. Kinetics of prion protein accumulation in the CNS of mice with experimental scrapie. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 58: 1244-1249.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Titl ow W B, L ee C H, R you C. 2013. C haracterization of toxicological properties of L-lysine polymers in CD-1 mice. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 23: 1015-1022.
  14. Trevitt CR, Collinge J. 2006. A systematic review of prion therapeutics in experimental models. Brain 129: 2241-2265.
    Pubmed CrossRef

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Note

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2016; 26(9): 1657-1660

Published online September 28, 2016 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1601.01057

Copyright © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Effect of Polylysine on Scrapie Prion Protein Propagation in Spleen during Asymptomatic Stage of Experimental Prion Disease in Mice

William B. Titlow 1, Muhammad Waqas 2, Jihyun Lee 2, Jae Youl Cho 3, Sang Yeol Lee 4, Dae-Hwan Kim 5 and Chongsuk Ryou 1, 2, 5*

1Sander-Brown Center on Aging, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0230, USA, 2Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588, Republic of Korea, 3Department of Genetic Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Republic of Korea, 4Department of Life Science, Gachon University, Seongnam 13120, Republic of Korea, 5Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588, Republic of Korea, 6Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0298, USA

Received: January 22, 2016; Accepted: May 23, 2016

Abstract

Prion diseases are incurable neurodegenerative disorders. Our previous study demonstrated
that polylysine was effective in prolonging the incubation period in a rodent model and in
alleviating the scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) burden in the brain at the terminal stage of the
disease. Here, we report that intraperitoneal administration of polylysine suppresses the
accumulation of prions in the spleen during the early stages of the disease. This study
supports the congruence of PrPSc inhibition by polylysine in both the spleen and brain.

Keywords: Prion, PrPSc, animal model, spleen, brain, polylysine

References

  1. Beekes M, McBride PA. 2007. The spread of prions through the body in naturally acquired transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. FEBS J. 274: 588-605.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Bosque PJ, Ryou C, Telling G, Peretz D, Legname G, DeArmond SJ, Prusiner SB. 2002. Prions in skeletal muscle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 3812-3817.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  3. Grathwohl KU, Horiuchi M, Ishiguro N, Shinagawa M. 1996. Improvement of PrPSc-detection in mouse spleen early at the preclinical stage of scrapie with collagenase-completed tissue homogenization and Sarkosyl-NaCl extraction of PrPSc. Arch. Virol. 141: 1863-1874.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Jackson KS, Yeom J, Han Y, Bae Y, Ryou C. 2013. Preference toward a polylysine enantiomer in inhibiting prions. Amino Acids 44: 993-1000.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Lee H-M, Ryou C. 2014. Targeting of poly(L-lysine) to organs that propagate prions. J. Bioactive Compat. Polym. 29: 432-444.
    CrossRef
  6. Prusiner SB. 1998. Prions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:13363-13383.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  7. Ryou C. 2007. Prions and prion diseases: fundamentals and mechanistic details. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 17: 1059-1070.
    Pubmed
  8. Ryou C. 2010. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, pp. 151-172. In Saleh M (ed.). Molecular Aspects of Infectious Diseases. Nova Science Publisher, Hauppauge, New York.
  9. Ryou C. 2011. Prion Diseases. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, Wiley, Chichester, UK.
  10. Ryou C, Mays CE. 2010. Prions pp. 129-149. In S al eh M (ed.), Molecular Aspects of Infectious Diseases. Nova Science Publisher, Hauppauge, New York.
  11. Ryou C, T itl ow W B, M ays CE, Bae Y, Kim S. 2 011. T he suppression of prion propagation using poly-L-lysine by targeting plasminogen that stimulates prion protein conversion. Biomaterials 32: 3141-3149.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  12. Tatzelt J, Groth DF, Torchia M, Prusiner SB, DeArmond SJ. 1999. Kinetics of prion protein accumulation in the CNS of mice with experimental scrapie. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 58: 1244-1249.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Titl ow W B, L ee C H, R you C. 2013. C haracterization of toxicological properties of L-lysine polymers in CD-1 mice. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 23: 1015-1022.
  14. Trevitt CR, Collinge J. 2006. A systematic review of prion therapeutics in experimental models. Brain 129: 2241-2265.
    Pubmed CrossRef