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References

  1. Anbarasan S, Janis J, Paloheimo M, Laitaoja M, Vuolanto M, Karimaki J, et al. 2010. Effect of glycosylation and additional domains on the thermostability of a family 10 xylanase produced by Thermopolyspora flexuosa. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 356-360.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  2. Antony CP, Kumaresan D, Hunger S, Drake HL, Murrell JC, Shouche YS. 2013. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes. ISME J. 7: 468-476.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  3. Bai W, Xue Y, Zhou C, Ma Y. 2012. Cloning, expression and characterization of a novel salt-tolerant xylanase from Bacillus sp. SN5. Biotechnol. Lett. 34: 2093-2099.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Bastawde KB. 1992. Xylan structure, microbial xylanases, and their mode of action. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 8:353-368.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Beg QK, Kapoor M, Mahajan L, Hoondal GS. 2001. Microbial xylanases and their industrial applications: a review. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 56: 326-338.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Biely P, Vrsanska M, Tenkanen M, Kluepfel D. 1997. Endoβ-1,4-xylanase families: differences in catalytic properties. J. Biotechnol. 57: 151-166.
    CrossRef
  7. Bradford MM. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem. 72: 248-254.
    CrossRef
  8. Cantarel BL, Coutinho PM, Rancurel C, Bernard T, Lombard V, Henrissat B. 2009. The carbohydrate-active enzymes database (CAZy): an expert resource for glycogenomics. Nucleic Acids Res. 37: D233-D238.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  9. Chang P, Tsai W S, T sai CL, Tseng MJ. 2 004. C loning and characterization of two thermostable xylanases from an alkaliphilic Bacillus firmus. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 319: 1017-1025.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Collins T, Gerday C, Feller G. 2005. Xylanases, xylanase families and extremophilic xylanases. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 29: 3-23.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Ferreira-Filho EX. 1994. The xylan-degrading enzyme system. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 27: 1093-1109.
    Pubmed
  12. Fukuchi S, Yoshimune K, Wakayama M, Moriguchi M, Nishikawa K. 2003. Unique amino acid composition of proteins in halophilic bacteria. J. Mol. Biol. 327: 347-357.
    CrossRef
  13. Grant W, Sorokin D. 2011. Distribution and diversity of soda lake alkaliphiles, pp. 27-54. In Horikoshi K (ed.). Extremophiles Handbook. Springer, Japan.
    CrossRef
  14. Guo B, Chen XL, Sun CY, Zhou BC, Zhang YZ. 2009. Gene cloning, expression and characterization of a new coldactive and salt-tolerant endo-β-1,4-xylanase from marine Glaciecola mesophila KMM 241. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 84:1107-1115.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Gupta N, Reddy VS, Maiti S, Ghosh A. 2000. Cloning, expression, and sequence analysis of the gene encoding the alkali-stable, thermostable endoxylanase from alkalophilic, mesophilic Bacillus sp. strain NG-27. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 2631-2635.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  16. Hung KS, L iu SM, F ang TY, T zou WS, Lin FP, Sun KH, Tang SJ. 2011. Characterization of a salt-tolerant xylanase from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum NTOU1. Biotechnol. Lett. 33: 1441-1447.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Ito S. 2011. Alkaline enzymes in current detergency, pp. 229-251. In Horikoshi K (ed.). Extremophiles Handbook. Springer, Japan.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Jeffries TW. 1996. Biochemistry and genetics of microbial xylanases. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 7: 337-342.
    CrossRef
  19. Jones BE, Grant WD, Duckworth AW, Owenson GG. 1998. Microbial diversity of soda lakes. Extremophiles 2: 191-200.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  20. Kamal Kumar B, Balakrishnan H, Rele MV. 2004. Compatibility of alkaline xylanases from an alkaliphilic Bacillus NCL (87-6-10) with commercial detergents and proteases. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 31: 83-87.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  21. Khasin A, Alchanati I, Shoham Y. 1993. Purification and characterization of a thermostable xylanase from Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59: 1725-1730.
    Pubmed PMC
  22. Kulkarni N, Shendye A, Rao M. 1999. Molecular and biotechnological aspects of xylanases. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 23: 411-456.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  23. Liu B, Zhang N, Zhao C, Lin B, Xie L, Huang Y. 2012. Characterization of a recombinant thermostable xylanase from hot spring thermophilic Geobacillus sp. TC-W7. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 22: 1388-1394.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  24. Liu X, Huang Z, Zhang X, Shao Z, Liu Z. 2014. Cloning, expression and characterization of a novel cold-active and halophilic xylanase from Zunongwangia profunda. Extremophiles 18: 441-450.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  25. Liu Y-G, Whittier RF. 1995. Thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR: automatable amplification and sequencing of insert end fragments from P1 and YAC clones for chromosome walking. Genomics 25: 674-681.
    CrossRef
  26. Mamo G, Delgado O, Martinez A, Mattiasson B, Hatti-Kaul R. 2006. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of a gene encoding an endoxylanase from Bacillus halodurans S7. Mol. Biotechnol. 33: 149-159.
    CrossRef
  27. Mamo G, Thunnissen M, Hatti-Kaul R, Mattiasson B. 2009. An alkaline active xylanase: insights into mechanisms of high pH catalytic adaptation. Biochimie 91: 1187-1196.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  28. Manikandan K, Bhardwaj A, Gupta N, Lokanath NK, Ghosh A, Reddy VS, Ramakumar S. 2006. Crystal structures of native and xylosaccharide-bound alkali thermostable xylanase from an alkalophilic Bacillus sp. NG-27: structural insights into alkalophilicity and implications for adaptation to polyextreme conditions. Protein Sci. 15: 1951-1960.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  29. Mielenz JR. 2001. Ethanol production from biomass: technology and commercialization status. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 4: 324-329.
    CrossRef
  30. Miller GL, Blum R, Glennon WE, Burton AL. 1960. Measurement of carboxymethylcellulase activity. Anal. Biochem. 1: 127-132.
    CrossRef
  31. Nimchua T, Thongaram T, Uengwetwanit T, Pongpattanakitshote S, Eurwilaichitr L. 2012. Metagenomic analysis of novel lignocellulose-degrading enzymes from higher termite guts inhabiting microbes. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 22: 462-469.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  32. Petersen TN, Brunak S, von Heijne G, Nielsen H. 2011. SignalP 4.0: discriminating signal peptides from transmembrane regions. Nat. Methods 8: 785-786.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  33. Prade RA. 1996. Xylanases: from biology to biotechnology. Biotechnol. Genet. Eng. Rev. 13: 101-131.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  34. Saha BC. 2003. Hemicellulose bioconversion. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 30: 279-291.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  35. Shen J, Cao JT, Wu YH. 2001. Paleoclimatic changes in Dabusu Lake. Chin. J. Oceanol. Limnol. 19: 91-96
    CrossRef
  36. Simkhada JR, Yoo HY, Choi YH, Kim SW, Yoo JC. 2012. An extremely alkaline novel xylanase from a newly isolated Streptomyces strain cultivated in corncob medium. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 168: 2017-2027.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  37. Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S. 2007. MEGA4:molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol. Biol. Evol. 24: 1596-1599.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  38. van den Burg B. 2003. Extremophiles as a source for novel enzymes. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 6: 213-218.
    CrossRef
  39. Verma D, Kawarabayasi Y, Miyazaki K, Satyanarayana T. 2013. Cloning, expression and characteristics of a novel alkalistable and thermostable xylanase encoding gene (Mxyl) retrieved from compost-soil metagenome. PLoS One 8: e52459.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  40. Verma D, Satyanarayana T. 2012. Cloning, expression and applicability of thermo-alkali-stable xylanase of Geobacillus thermoleovorans in generating xylooligosaccharides from agro-residues. Bioresour. Technol. 107: 333-338.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  41. Viikari L, Kantelinen A, Sundquist J, Linko M. 1994. Xylanases in bleaching: from an idea to the industry. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 13: 335-350.
    CrossRef
  42. Wang G, Wang Y, Yang P, Luo H, Huang H, Shi P, et al. 2010. Molecular detection and diversity of xylanase genes in alpine tundra soil. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 87: 1383-1393.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  43. Xiong H, Nyyssölä A, Jänis J, Pastinen O, Weymarn Nv, Leisola M, Turunen O. 2004. Characterization of the xylanase produced by submerged cultivation of Thermomyces lanuginosus DSM 10635. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 35: 93-99.
    CrossRef
  44. Zhang G, Mao L, Zhao Y, Xue Y, Ma Y. 2010. Characterization of a thermostable xylanase from an alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. Biotechnol. Lett. 32: 1915-1920.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  45. Zhao Y, Luo H, Meng K, Shi P, Wang G, Yang P, et al. 2011. A xylanase gene directly cloned from the genomic DNA of alkaline wastewater sludge showing application potential in the paper industry. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 165: 35-46.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  46. Zhao Y, M eng K, Luo H, Y ang P, Shi P, Huang H, et al. 2011. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a new xylanase from alkalophilic Paenibacillus sp. 12-11. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 21: 861-868.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  47. Zhou J, Gao Y, Dong Y, Tang X, Li J, Xu B, et al. 2012. A novel xylanase with tolerance to ethanol, salt, protease, SDS, heat, and alkali from actinomycete Lechevalieria sp. HJ3. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 39: 965-975.
    Pubmed CrossRef

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Article

Research article

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2015; 25(5): 662-671

Published online May 28, 2015 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1408.08062

Copyright © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Molecular Characterization of a Thermophilic and Salt- and Alkaline-Tolerant Xylanase from Planococcus sp. SL4, a Strain Isolated from the Sediment of a Soda Lake

Xiaoyun Huang 1, Juan Lin 1, 2, Xiuyun Ye 1, 2 and Guozeng Wang 1, 2*

1College of Biological Science and Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, P.R. China, 2Fujian Key Laboratory of Marine Enzyme Engineering, Fuzhou 350002, P.R. China

Received: August 25, 2014; Accepted: November 10, 2014

Abstract

To enrich the genetic resource of microbial xylanases with high activity and stability under
alkaline conditions, a xylanase gene (xynSL4) was cloned from Planococcus sp. SL4, an alkaline
xylanase-producing strain isolated from the sediment of soda lake Dabusu. Deduced XynSL4
consists of a putative signal peptide of 29 residues and a catalytic domain (30-380 residues) of
glycosyl hydrolase family 10, and shares the highest identity of 77% with a hypothetical
protein from Planomicrobium glaciei CHR43. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that deduced
XynSL4 is closely related with thermophilic and alkaline xylanases from Geobacillus and
Bacillus species. The gene xynSL4 was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and the
recombinant enzyme showed some superior properties. Purified recombinant XynSL4
(rXynSL4) was highly active and stable over the neutral and alkaline pH range from 6 to 11,
with maximum activity at pH 7 and more than 60% activity at pH 11. It had an apparent
temperature optimum of 70oC and retained stable at this temperature in the presence of
substrate. rXynSL4 was highly halotolerant, retaining more than 55% activity with 0.25–3.0 M
NaCl and was stable at the concentration of NaCl up to 4M. The enzyme activity was
significantly enhanced by β-mercaptoethanol and Ca2+ but strongly inhibited by heavy-metal
ions and SDS. This thermophilic and alkaline- and salt-tolerant enzyme has great potential for
basic research and industrial applications.

Keywords: Xylanase, Planococcus, Gene cloning, Thermophilic, Alkaline and salt-tolerant

References

  1. Anbarasan S, Janis J, Paloheimo M, Laitaoja M, Vuolanto M, Karimaki J, et al. 2010. Effect of glycosylation and additional domains on the thermostability of a family 10 xylanase produced by Thermopolyspora flexuosa. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 356-360.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  2. Antony CP, Kumaresan D, Hunger S, Drake HL, Murrell JC, Shouche YS. 2013. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes. ISME J. 7: 468-476.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  3. Bai W, Xue Y, Zhou C, Ma Y. 2012. Cloning, expression and characterization of a novel salt-tolerant xylanase from Bacillus sp. SN5. Biotechnol. Lett. 34: 2093-2099.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Bastawde KB. 1992. Xylan structure, microbial xylanases, and their mode of action. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 8:353-368.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Beg QK, Kapoor M, Mahajan L, Hoondal GS. 2001. Microbial xylanases and their industrial applications: a review. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 56: 326-338.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Biely P, Vrsanska M, Tenkanen M, Kluepfel D. 1997. Endoβ-1,4-xylanase families: differences in catalytic properties. J. Biotechnol. 57: 151-166.
    CrossRef
  7. Bradford MM. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem. 72: 248-254.
    CrossRef
  8. Cantarel BL, Coutinho PM, Rancurel C, Bernard T, Lombard V, Henrissat B. 2009. The carbohydrate-active enzymes database (CAZy): an expert resource for glycogenomics. Nucleic Acids Res. 37: D233-D238.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  9. Chang P, Tsai W S, T sai CL, Tseng MJ. 2 004. C loning and characterization of two thermostable xylanases from an alkaliphilic Bacillus firmus. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 319: 1017-1025.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Collins T, Gerday C, Feller G. 2005. Xylanases, xylanase families and extremophilic xylanases. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 29: 3-23.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Ferreira-Filho EX. 1994. The xylan-degrading enzyme system. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 27: 1093-1109.
    Pubmed
  12. Fukuchi S, Yoshimune K, Wakayama M, Moriguchi M, Nishikawa K. 2003. Unique amino acid composition of proteins in halophilic bacteria. J. Mol. Biol. 327: 347-357.
    CrossRef
  13. Grant W, Sorokin D. 2011. Distribution and diversity of soda lake alkaliphiles, pp. 27-54. In Horikoshi K (ed.). Extremophiles Handbook. Springer, Japan.
    CrossRef
  14. Guo B, Chen XL, Sun CY, Zhou BC, Zhang YZ. 2009. Gene cloning, expression and characterization of a new coldactive and salt-tolerant endo-β-1,4-xylanase from marine Glaciecola mesophila KMM 241. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 84:1107-1115.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Gupta N, Reddy VS, Maiti S, Ghosh A. 2000. Cloning, expression, and sequence analysis of the gene encoding the alkali-stable, thermostable endoxylanase from alkalophilic, mesophilic Bacillus sp. strain NG-27. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 2631-2635.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  16. Hung KS, L iu SM, F ang TY, T zou WS, Lin FP, Sun KH, Tang SJ. 2011. Characterization of a salt-tolerant xylanase from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum NTOU1. Biotechnol. Lett. 33: 1441-1447.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Ito S. 2011. Alkaline enzymes in current detergency, pp. 229-251. In Horikoshi K (ed.). Extremophiles Handbook. Springer, Japan.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Jeffries TW. 1996. Biochemistry and genetics of microbial xylanases. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 7: 337-342.
    CrossRef
  19. Jones BE, Grant WD, Duckworth AW, Owenson GG. 1998. Microbial diversity of soda lakes. Extremophiles 2: 191-200.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  20. Kamal Kumar B, Balakrishnan H, Rele MV. 2004. Compatibility of alkaline xylanases from an alkaliphilic Bacillus NCL (87-6-10) with commercial detergents and proteases. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 31: 83-87.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  21. Khasin A, Alchanati I, Shoham Y. 1993. Purification and characterization of a thermostable xylanase from Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59: 1725-1730.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  22. Kulkarni N, Shendye A, Rao M. 1999. Molecular and biotechnological aspects of xylanases. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 23: 411-456.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  23. Liu B, Zhang N, Zhao C, Lin B, Xie L, Huang Y. 2012. Characterization of a recombinant thermostable xylanase from hot spring thermophilic Geobacillus sp. TC-W7. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 22: 1388-1394.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  24. Liu X, Huang Z, Zhang X, Shao Z, Liu Z. 2014. Cloning, expression and characterization of a novel cold-active and halophilic xylanase from Zunongwangia profunda. Extremophiles 18: 441-450.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  25. Liu Y-G, Whittier RF. 1995. Thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR: automatable amplification and sequencing of insert end fragments from P1 and YAC clones for chromosome walking. Genomics 25: 674-681.
    CrossRef
  26. Mamo G, Delgado O, Martinez A, Mattiasson B, Hatti-Kaul R. 2006. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of a gene encoding an endoxylanase from Bacillus halodurans S7. Mol. Biotechnol. 33: 149-159.
    CrossRef
  27. Mamo G, Thunnissen M, Hatti-Kaul R, Mattiasson B. 2009. An alkaline active xylanase: insights into mechanisms of high pH catalytic adaptation. Biochimie 91: 1187-1196.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  28. Manikandan K, Bhardwaj A, Gupta N, Lokanath NK, Ghosh A, Reddy VS, Ramakumar S. 2006. Crystal structures of native and xylosaccharide-bound alkali thermostable xylanase from an alkalophilic Bacillus sp. NG-27: structural insights into alkalophilicity and implications for adaptation to polyextreme conditions. Protein Sci. 15: 1951-1960.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  29. Mielenz JR. 2001. Ethanol production from biomass: technology and commercialization status. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 4: 324-329.
    CrossRef
  30. Miller GL, Blum R, Glennon WE, Burton AL. 1960. Measurement of carboxymethylcellulase activity. Anal. Biochem. 1: 127-132.
    CrossRef
  31. Nimchua T, Thongaram T, Uengwetwanit T, Pongpattanakitshote S, Eurwilaichitr L. 2012. Metagenomic analysis of novel lignocellulose-degrading enzymes from higher termite guts inhabiting microbes. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 22: 462-469.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  32. Petersen TN, Brunak S, von Heijne G, Nielsen H. 2011. SignalP 4.0: discriminating signal peptides from transmembrane regions. Nat. Methods 8: 785-786.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  33. Prade RA. 1996. Xylanases: from biology to biotechnology. Biotechnol. Genet. Eng. Rev. 13: 101-131.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  34. Saha BC. 2003. Hemicellulose bioconversion. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 30: 279-291.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  35. Shen J, Cao JT, Wu YH. 2001. Paleoclimatic changes in Dabusu Lake. Chin. J. Oceanol. Limnol. 19: 91-96
    CrossRef
  36. Simkhada JR, Yoo HY, Choi YH, Kim SW, Yoo JC. 2012. An extremely alkaline novel xylanase from a newly isolated Streptomyces strain cultivated in corncob medium. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 168: 2017-2027.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  37. Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S. 2007. MEGA4:molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol. Biol. Evol. 24: 1596-1599.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  38. van den Burg B. 2003. Extremophiles as a source for novel enzymes. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 6: 213-218.
    CrossRef
  39. Verma D, Kawarabayasi Y, Miyazaki K, Satyanarayana T. 2013. Cloning, expression and characteristics of a novel alkalistable and thermostable xylanase encoding gene (Mxyl) retrieved from compost-soil metagenome. PLoS One 8: e52459.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  40. Verma D, Satyanarayana T. 2012. Cloning, expression and applicability of thermo-alkali-stable xylanase of Geobacillus thermoleovorans in generating xylooligosaccharides from agro-residues. Bioresour. Technol. 107: 333-338.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  41. Viikari L, Kantelinen A, Sundquist J, Linko M. 1994. Xylanases in bleaching: from an idea to the industry. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 13: 335-350.
    CrossRef
  42. Wang G, Wang Y, Yang P, Luo H, Huang H, Shi P, et al. 2010. Molecular detection and diversity of xylanase genes in alpine tundra soil. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 87: 1383-1393.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  43. Xiong H, Nyyssölä A, Jänis J, Pastinen O, Weymarn Nv, Leisola M, Turunen O. 2004. Characterization of the xylanase produced by submerged cultivation of Thermomyces lanuginosus DSM 10635. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 35: 93-99.
    CrossRef
  44. Zhang G, Mao L, Zhao Y, Xue Y, Ma Y. 2010. Characterization of a thermostable xylanase from an alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. Biotechnol. Lett. 32: 1915-1920.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  45. Zhao Y, Luo H, Meng K, Shi P, Wang G, Yang P, et al. 2011. A xylanase gene directly cloned from the genomic DNA of alkaline wastewater sludge showing application potential in the paper industry. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 165: 35-46.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  46. Zhao Y, M eng K, Luo H, Y ang P, Shi P, Huang H, et al. 2011. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a new xylanase from alkalophilic Paenibacillus sp. 12-11. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 21: 861-868.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  47. Zhou J, Gao Y, Dong Y, Tang X, Li J, Xu B, et al. 2012. A novel xylanase with tolerance to ethanol, salt, protease, SDS, heat, and alkali from actinomycete Lechevalieria sp. HJ3. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 39: 965-975.
    Pubmed CrossRef