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J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2011; 21(4): 405-411

Published online April 28, 2011 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1011.11024

Copyright © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

The Adjuvant Effect of Sophy β-Glucan to the Antibody Response in Poultry Immunized by the Avian Influenza A H5N1 and H5N2 Vaccines

Thanh Hoa Le 1, Tran Binh Le 1, Thanh Huong Thi Doan 1, Dong Van Quyen 1, Kim Xuyen Thi Le 1, Viet Cuong Pham 1, Mitsuru Nagataki 2, Haruka Nomura 3, Yasunori Ikeue 2, Yoshiya Watanabe 2 and Takeshi Agatsuma 3*

1Institute of Biotechnology, Hoang Quoc Viet Rd, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2Sophy Company, Research and Development Division, Agawa, Kochi 781-1522, Japan, 3Department of Environmental Health Science, Kochi Medical School, Oko, Nankoku, Kochi 783-8505, Japan

Received: November 24, 2010; Accepted: January 13, 2011

Abstract

Avian influenza virus vaccines produced in oil-emulsified
inactivated form with antigen content of at least 160
hemagglutinin units (HAU) induced immunity in birds.
However, in addition to enhancing the effect of the
adjuvant(s), other additional supplemented biological
compounds included in inactivated vaccines could produce
higher levels of antibody. We examined in chickens,
Vietnamese ducks, and muscovy ducks the adjuvant effect
of Sophy β-glucan (SBG), a β-1,3-1,6 glucan produced by
the black yeast Aureobasidium pollulans strain AF0-202,
when administered with an avian influenza H5 subtype
vaccine. In Experiment 1, 40 chickens (ISA Brown hybrid),
allocated to four groups of ten each, were immunized with
Oil-H5N1(VN), Oil-H5N1(CN), Oil-H5N2(CN), and saline
(control group), respectively. In Experiment 2, chickens
(ISA Brown hybrid), muscovy ducks (French hybrid), and
Vietnamese ducks (indigenous Vietnamese) were used to
further assess the effect of SBG on immunogenicity of
the Oil-H5N1(VN) Vietnamese vaccine. ELISA and
hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were used to assess
the antibody response. The H5 subtype vaccines initiated
significantly higher immune responses in the animals
dosed with SBG, with 1.0-1.5 log2 higher HI titers and
10-20% ELISA seroconversion, compared with those not
dosed with β-glucan. Notably, some of the animals dosed
with SBG induced HI titers higher than 9.0 log2 following
boosting immunization. Taken together, our serial studies
indicated that SBG is a potential effector, such as enhancing
the immune response to the H5 vaccines tested.

Keywords: Avian influenza, A/H5N2 vaccine, Immunomodulation, A/H5N1 vaccine, Immunogenicity, Sophy,,-glucan (SBG)