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References

  1. Poo H, Park C, Kwak MS, Choi DY, Hong SP, Lee IH, et al. 2010. N ew b iological f unctions a nd a pplications o f highmolecularmass poly-γ-glutamic acid. Chem. Biodivers. 7:1555-1562.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Hutkins RW, Krumbeck JA, Bindels LB, Cani PD, Fahey G, Goh YJ, et al. 2016. Prebiotics: why definitions matter. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 37: 1-7.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  3. Lin C-S, Chang C-J, Lu C-C, Martel J, Ojcius DM, Ko Y-F, et al. 2014. Impact of the gut microbiota, prebiotics, and probiotics on human health and disease. Biomed. J. 37: 259.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Kassinen A, Krogius-Kurikka L, Makivuokko H, Rinttila T, Paulin L, Corander J, et al. 2007. The fecal microbiota of irritable bowel syndrome patients differs significantly from that of healthy subjects. Gastroenterology 133: 24-33.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Scanlan PD, Shanahan F, Clune Y, Collins JK, O’Sullivan GC, O’Riordan M, et al. 2008. Culture-independent analysis of the gut microbiota in colorectal cancer and polyposis. Environ. Microbiol. 10: 789-798, erratum 1382.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Larsen N, Vogensen FK, van den Berg FW, Nielsen DS, Andreasen AS, Pedersen BK, et al. 2010. Gut microbiota in human adults with type 2 diabetes differs from non-diabetic adults. PLoS One 5: e9085.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  7. Armougom F, Henry M, Vialettes B, Raccah D, Raoult D. 2009. Monitoring bacterial community of human gut microbiota reveals an increase in Lactobacillus in obese patients and methanogens in anorexic patients. PLoS One 4: e7125.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  8. Shreiner AB, Kao JY, Young VB. 2015. The gut microbiome in health and in disease. Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 31: 69-75.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  9. Rodríguez JM, Murphy K, Stanton C, Ross RP, Kober OI, Juge N, et al. 2015. The composition of the gut microbiota throughout l ife, with an emphasis on early l ife. Microb. Ecol. Health Dis. 26: 26050.
    Pubmed
  10. Wen X, Jackson EF, Price RE, Kim EE, Wu Q, Wallace S, et al. 2 004. S ynthesis a nd c haracterization of poly (L-glutamic acid) gadolinium chelate: a new biodegradable MRI contrast agent. Bioconjug. Chem. 15: 1408-1415.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Duncan R, Kopeckova-Rejmanova P, Strohalm J, Hume I, Cable H, Pohl J, et al. 1987. Anticancer agents coupled to N(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide copolymers. I. Evaluation of daunomycin and puromycin conjugates in vitro. Br. J. Cancer 55: 165.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  12. Duncan R, Rejmanova P, Kopeček J, Lloyd JB. 1981. Pinocytic uptake and intracellular degradation of N-(2hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide copolymers. A potential drug delivery system. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 678: 143-150.
    CrossRef
  13. Jeon YH, Kwak MS, Sung MH, Kim SH, Kim MH, Chang MJ. 2013. High-molecular-weight poly-gamma-glutamate protects against hypertriglyceridemic effects of a highfructose diet in rat. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 23: 785-793.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Biagi G, Cipollini I, Pompei A, Zaghini G, Matteuzzi D. 2007. Effect of a Lactobacillus animalis strain on composition and metabolism of the intestinal microflora in adult dogs. Vet. Microbiol. 124: 160-165.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Medellin-Pena MJ, Griffiths MW. 2009. Effect of molecules secreted by Lactobacillus acidophilus strain La-5 on Escherichia coli O157: H7 colonization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75: 11651172.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  16. Alakomi H-L, Skyttä E, Saarela M, Mattila-Sandholm T, Latva-Kala K, Helander I. 2000. Lactic acid permeabilizes gram-negative bacteria by disrupting the outer membrane. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 2001-2005.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  17. Lutgendorff F, Akkermans L, Soderholm JD. 2008. The role of microbiota and probiotics in stress-induced gastrointestinal damage. Curr. Mol. Med. 8: 282-298.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Bruce-Keller AJ, Salbaum JM, Luo M, Blanchard ET, Taylor CM, Welsh DA, Berthoud HR. 2015. Obese-type gut microbiota induce neurobehavioral changes in the absence of obesity. Biol. Psychiatry 77: 607-615.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef

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Note

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2017; 27(2): 412-415

Published online February 28, 2017 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1611.11023

Copyright © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Prebiotic Effects of Poly-Gamma-Glutamate on Bacterial Flora in Murine Gut

Hee-eun Jin 1, Jae-Chul Choi 1, 2, Yong Taik Lim 3 and Moon-Hee Sung 1, 2*

1Department of Bio and Fermentation Convergence Technology, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Republic of Korea, 2BioLeaders Corporation, Daejeon 34028, Republic of Korea, 3SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology, School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Republic of Korea

Received: November 7, 2016; Accepted: December 7, 2016

Abstract

Prebiotics improve the growth or activities of specific microbial genera and species in the gut
microbiota in order to confer health benefits to the host. In this study, we investigated the
effect of poly-gamma-glutamate (γ-PGA) as a prebiotic on the gut microbiota of mice and the
organ distributions of γ-PGA in mice. Pyrosequencing analysis for 16S rRNA genes of bacteria
indicated that oral administration of γ-PGA increased the abundance of Lactobacillales while
reducing the abundance of Clostridiales in murine guts. It is suggested that oral
administration of γ-PGA can be helpful for modulating the gut microbiota as a prebiotic.

Keywords: Poly-γ-glutamate, gut microbiota, prebiotics, organ distributions

References

  1. Poo H, Park C, Kwak MS, Choi DY, Hong SP, Lee IH, et al. 2010. N ew b iological f unctions a nd a pplications o f highmolecularmass poly-γ-glutamic acid. Chem. Biodivers. 7:1555-1562.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Hutkins RW, Krumbeck JA, Bindels LB, Cani PD, Fahey G, Goh YJ, et al. 2016. Prebiotics: why definitions matter. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 37: 1-7.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  3. Lin C-S, Chang C-J, Lu C-C, Martel J, Ojcius DM, Ko Y-F, et al. 2014. Impact of the gut microbiota, prebiotics, and probiotics on human health and disease. Biomed. J. 37: 259.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Kassinen A, Krogius-Kurikka L, Makivuokko H, Rinttila T, Paulin L, Corander J, et al. 2007. The fecal microbiota of irritable bowel syndrome patients differs significantly from that of healthy subjects. Gastroenterology 133: 24-33.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Scanlan PD, Shanahan F, Clune Y, Collins JK, O’Sullivan GC, O’Riordan M, et al. 2008. Culture-independent analysis of the gut microbiota in colorectal cancer and polyposis. Environ. Microbiol. 10: 789-798, erratum 1382.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Larsen N, Vogensen FK, van den Berg FW, Nielsen DS, Andreasen AS, Pedersen BK, et al. 2010. Gut microbiota in human adults with type 2 diabetes differs from non-diabetic adults. PLoS One 5: e9085.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  7. Armougom F, Henry M, Vialettes B, Raccah D, Raoult D. 2009. Monitoring bacterial community of human gut microbiota reveals an increase in Lactobacillus in obese patients and methanogens in anorexic patients. PLoS One 4: e7125.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  8. Shreiner AB, Kao JY, Young VB. 2015. The gut microbiome in health and in disease. Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 31: 69-75.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  9. Rodríguez JM, Murphy K, Stanton C, Ross RP, Kober OI, Juge N, et al. 2015. The composition of the gut microbiota throughout l ife, with an emphasis on early l ife. Microb. Ecol. Health Dis. 26: 26050.
    Pubmed
  10. Wen X, Jackson EF, Price RE, Kim EE, Wu Q, Wallace S, et al. 2 004. S ynthesis a nd c haracterization of poly (L-glutamic acid) gadolinium chelate: a new biodegradable MRI contrast agent. Bioconjug. Chem. 15: 1408-1415.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Duncan R, Kopeckova-Rejmanova P, Strohalm J, Hume I, Cable H, Pohl J, et al. 1987. Anticancer agents coupled to N(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide copolymers. I. Evaluation of daunomycin and puromycin conjugates in vitro. Br. J. Cancer 55: 165.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  12. Duncan R, Rejmanova P, Kopeček J, Lloyd JB. 1981. Pinocytic uptake and intracellular degradation of N-(2hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide copolymers. A potential drug delivery system. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 678: 143-150.
    CrossRef
  13. Jeon YH, Kwak MS, Sung MH, Kim SH, Kim MH, Chang MJ. 2013. High-molecular-weight poly-gamma-glutamate protects against hypertriglyceridemic effects of a highfructose diet in rat. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 23: 785-793.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Biagi G, Cipollini I, Pompei A, Zaghini G, Matteuzzi D. 2007. Effect of a Lactobacillus animalis strain on composition and metabolism of the intestinal microflora in adult dogs. Vet. Microbiol. 124: 160-165.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Medellin-Pena MJ, Griffiths MW. 2009. Effect of molecules secreted by Lactobacillus acidophilus strain La-5 on Escherichia coli O157: H7 colonization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75: 11651172.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  16. Alakomi H-L, Skyttä E, Saarela M, Mattila-Sandholm T, Latva-Kala K, Helander I. 2000. Lactic acid permeabilizes gram-negative bacteria by disrupting the outer membrane. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 2001-2005.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  17. Lutgendorff F, Akkermans L, Soderholm JD. 2008. The role of microbiota and probiotics in stress-induced gastrointestinal damage. Curr. Mol. Med. 8: 282-298.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Bruce-Keller AJ, Salbaum JM, Luo M, Blanchard ET, Taylor CM, Welsh DA, Berthoud HR. 2015. Obese-type gut microbiota induce neurobehavioral changes in the absence of obesity. Biol. Psychiatry 77: 607-615.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef