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Research article

References

  1. Applequist S E, Wallin R P, Ljunggren H G. 2 002. V ariable expression of Toll-like receptor in murine innate and adaptive immune cell lines. Int. Immunol. 14: 1065-1074.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Flies AS, Maksimoski MT, Mansfield LS, Weldele ML, Holekamp KE. 2014. Characterization of Toll-like receptors 1-10 in spotted hyenas. Vet. Res. Commun. 38: 165-170.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  3. Fougeron D, Van Maele L , Songhet P, Cayet D, Hot D, Van Rooijen N, et al. 2015. Indirect Toll-like receptor 5-mediated activation of conventional dendritic cells promotes the mucosal adjuvant activity of flagellin in the respiratory tract. Vaccine 33: 3331-3341.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Ignacio G, Nordone S, Howard KE, Dean GA. 2005. Toll-like receptor expression in feline lymphoid tissues. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 106: 229-237.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Janeway CA Jr, Medzhitov R. 2002. Innate immune recognition. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 20: 197-216.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Jungi TW, Farhat K, Burgener IA, Werling D. 2011. Toll-like receptors in domestic animals. Cell Tissue Res. 343: 107-120.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Kawasaki T, Kawai T. 2014. Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. Front. Immunol. 5: 461.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  8. Machida K, Cheng KT, Sung VM, Levine AM, Foung S , Lai MM. 2006. Hepatitis C virus induces Toll-like receptor 4 expression, leading to enhanced production of beta interferon and interleukin-6. J. Virol. 80: 866-874.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  9. Medzhitov R, Preston-Hurlburt P, Janeway CA Jr. 1997. A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation of adaptive immunity. Nature 388: 394-397.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Menzies M, Ingham A. 2006. Identification and expression of Toll-like receptors 1-10 in selected bovine and ovine tissues. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 109: 23-30.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Nalubarnba KS, Gossner AG, Dalziel RG, Hopkins J . 2007. Differential expression of pattern recognition receptors in sheep tissues and leukocyte subsets. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 118: 252-262.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Nishimura M, Naito S. 2005. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiles of human Toll-like receptors and related genes. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 28: 886-892.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Okui Y, Kano R, Maruyama H, Hasegawa A. 2008. Cloning of canine Toll-like receptor 7 gene and its expression in dog tissues. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 121: 156-160.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Parker GA, Picut CA. 2012. Immune functioning in non lymphoid organs: the liver. Toxicol. Pathol. 40: 237-247.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Ramasamy KT, Reddy MR, Raveendranathan DN, Murugesan S, Chatterjee RN, Ullengala R, Haunshi S. 2010. Differential expression of Toll-like receptor mRNA in White Leghorn and indigenous chicken of India. Vet. Res. Commun. 34: 633-639.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Roach JC, Glusman G, Rowen L, Kaur A, Purcell MK, Smith KD, et al. 2005. The evolution of vertebrate Toll-like receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102: 9577-9582.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  17. Schneider-Schaulies J, Schneider-Schaulies S. 2008. Receptor interactions, tropism, and mechanisms involved in morbillivirusinduced immunomodulation. Adv. Virus Res. 71: 173-205.
    CrossRef
  18. Sepulcre MP, Lopez-Castejon G, Meseguer J, Mulero V. 2007. The activation of gilthead seabream professional phagocytes by different PAMPs underlines the behavioural diversity of the main innate immune cells of bony fish. Mol. Immunol. 44: 2009-2016.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  19. Takeda K, Kaisho T, Akira S. 2003. Toll-like receptors. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 21: 335-376.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  20. Takeuchi O, Akira S. 2010. Pattern recognition receptors and inflammation. Cell 140: 805-820.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  21. Tirumurugaan KG, Dhanasekaran S, Raj GD, Raja A, Kumanan K, Ramaswamy V. 2010. Differential expression of Toll-like receptor mRNA in selected tissues of goat (Capra hircus). Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 133: 296-301.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  22. Uematsu S, Fujimoto K. 2010. The innate immune system in the intestine. Microbiol. Immunol. 54: 645-657.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  23. Vahanan BM, Raj GD, Pawar RM, Gopinath VP, Raja A, Thangavelu A. 2008. Expression profile of Toll like receptors in a range of water buffalo tissues (Bubalus bubalis). Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 126: 149-155.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  24. Wang J, Cheng S , Yi L, Cheng Y, Yang S, Xu H, et al. 2013. Detection of mink enteritis virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). J. Virol. Methods 187: 401-405.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  25. Yi L, Cheng Y , Zhang M , Cao Z , Tong M, Wang J, et al. 2015. Identification of a novel canine distemper virus B-cell epitope using a monoclonal antibody against nucleocapsid protein. Virus Res. 213: 1-5.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  26. Yi L, Tong M, Cheng Y, Song W, Cheng S. 2016. Phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus VP2 gene in China. Transbound Emerg. Dis. 63: e262-e269.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  27. Zarember KA, Godowski PJ. 2002. Tissue expression of human Toll-like receptors and differential regulation of Toll-like receptor mRNAs in leukocytes in response to microbes, their products, and cytokines. J. Immunol. 168:554-561.
    CrossRef
  28. Zhao JJ, Shi N, Sun YG, Martella V, Nikolin V, Zhu CS, et al. 2015. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks. Antiviral Res. 122:1-11.
    Pubmed CrossRef

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Article

Research article

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2016; 26(12): 2214-2223

Published online December 28, 2016 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1604.04063

Copyright © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Transcript Profiling of Toll-Like Receptor mRNAs in Selected Tissues of Mink (Neovison vison)

Mingwei Tong 1, Li Yi 1, Yuening Cheng 1, Miao Zhang 1, Zhigang Cao 1, Jianke Wang 1, Hang Zhao 1, Peng Lin 1, Yong Yang 2 and Shipeng Cheng 1*

1State Key Laboratory for Molecular Biology of Special Economic Animals, Institute of Special Economic Animal and Plant Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun, 130122, Jilin Province, P.R. China, 2Wu Xi Medical School, Jiangnan University, Wu Xi, 214122, Jiangsu Province, P.R. China

Received: April 25, 2016; Accepted: July 17, 2016

Abstract

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) can recognize conserved molecular patterns and initiate a wide
range of innate and adaptive immune responses against invading infectious agents. The aim of
this study was to assess the transcript profile of mink TLRs (mTLRs) in mink peripheral blood
mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and a range of tissues, and to explore the potential role of mTLRs
in the antiviral immune response process. The results indicated that the mTLR partial
nucleotide sequences had a high degree of nucleotide identity with ferret sequences (95-98%).
Phylogenetic analysis showed that mammalian TLRs grouped into five TLR families, with a
closer relationship of the mTLRs with those of ferret than the other mammalian sequences.
Moreover, all the mTLRs were ubiquitously expressed in lymphoid organs (spleen and lymph
nodes) and PBMCs. Interestingly, the mTLR expression patterns in lung, uterus, and heart
showed quite a lot of similarity. Another remarkable observation was the wide expression of
mTLR1-3 mRNAs in all tissues. Among the analyzed tissues, skeletal muscle was revealed to
being the lowest repertoire of mTLR expression. Additionally, mink PBMCs exposed to the
canine distemper virus revealed significant upregulation of mTLR2, mTLR4, mTLR7, and
mTLR8 mRNAs, indicating that mTLRs have a role in innate immunity in the mink.
Collectively, our results are the first to establish the basic expression patterns of mTLRs and
the relationship between mTLRs and a virus, which will contribute to better understanding of
the evolution and the functions of mTLRs in the innate immune system in minks.

Keywords: Neovison vison, Toll-like receptors, Transcript profiling, Innate immunity

References

  1. Applequist S E, Wallin R P, Ljunggren H G. 2 002. V ariable expression of Toll-like receptor in murine innate and adaptive immune cell lines. Int. Immunol. 14: 1065-1074.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Flies AS, Maksimoski MT, Mansfield LS, Weldele ML, Holekamp KE. 2014. Characterization of Toll-like receptors 1-10 in spotted hyenas. Vet. Res. Commun. 38: 165-170.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  3. Fougeron D, Van Maele L , Songhet P, Cayet D, Hot D, Van Rooijen N, et al. 2015. Indirect Toll-like receptor 5-mediated activation of conventional dendritic cells promotes the mucosal adjuvant activity of flagellin in the respiratory tract. Vaccine 33: 3331-3341.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Ignacio G, Nordone S, Howard KE, Dean GA. 2005. Toll-like receptor expression in feline lymphoid tissues. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 106: 229-237.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Janeway CA Jr, Medzhitov R. 2002. Innate immune recognition. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 20: 197-216.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Jungi TW, Farhat K, Burgener IA, Werling D. 2011. Toll-like receptors in domestic animals. Cell Tissue Res. 343: 107-120.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Kawasaki T, Kawai T. 2014. Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. Front. Immunol. 5: 461.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  8. Machida K, Cheng KT, Sung VM, Levine AM, Foung S , Lai MM. 2006. Hepatitis C virus induces Toll-like receptor 4 expression, leading to enhanced production of beta interferon and interleukin-6. J. Virol. 80: 866-874.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  9. Medzhitov R, Preston-Hurlburt P, Janeway CA Jr. 1997. A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation of adaptive immunity. Nature 388: 394-397.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Menzies M, Ingham A. 2006. Identification and expression of Toll-like receptors 1-10 in selected bovine and ovine tissues. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 109: 23-30.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Nalubarnba KS, Gossner AG, Dalziel RG, Hopkins J . 2007. Differential expression of pattern recognition receptors in sheep tissues and leukocyte subsets. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 118: 252-262.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Nishimura M, Naito S. 2005. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiles of human Toll-like receptors and related genes. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 28: 886-892.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Okui Y, Kano R, Maruyama H, Hasegawa A. 2008. Cloning of canine Toll-like receptor 7 gene and its expression in dog tissues. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 121: 156-160.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Parker GA, Picut CA. 2012. Immune functioning in non lymphoid organs: the liver. Toxicol. Pathol. 40: 237-247.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Ramasamy KT, Reddy MR, Raveendranathan DN, Murugesan S, Chatterjee RN, Ullengala R, Haunshi S. 2010. Differential expression of Toll-like receptor mRNA in White Leghorn and indigenous chicken of India. Vet. Res. Commun. 34: 633-639.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Roach JC, Glusman G, Rowen L, Kaur A, Purcell MK, Smith KD, et al. 2005. The evolution of vertebrate Toll-like receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102: 9577-9582.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  17. Schneider-Schaulies J, Schneider-Schaulies S. 2008. Receptor interactions, tropism, and mechanisms involved in morbillivirusinduced immunomodulation. Adv. Virus Res. 71: 173-205.
    CrossRef
  18. Sepulcre MP, Lopez-Castejon G, Meseguer J, Mulero V. 2007. The activation of gilthead seabream professional phagocytes by different PAMPs underlines the behavioural diversity of the main innate immune cells of bony fish. Mol. Immunol. 44: 2009-2016.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  19. Takeda K, Kaisho T, Akira S. 2003. Toll-like receptors. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 21: 335-376.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  20. Takeuchi O, Akira S. 2010. Pattern recognition receptors and inflammation. Cell 140: 805-820.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  21. Tirumurugaan KG, Dhanasekaran S, Raj GD, Raja A, Kumanan K, Ramaswamy V. 2010. Differential expression of Toll-like receptor mRNA in selected tissues of goat (Capra hircus). Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 133: 296-301.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  22. Uematsu S, Fujimoto K. 2010. The innate immune system in the intestine. Microbiol. Immunol. 54: 645-657.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  23. Vahanan BM, Raj GD, Pawar RM, Gopinath VP, Raja A, Thangavelu A. 2008. Expression profile of Toll like receptors in a range of water buffalo tissues (Bubalus bubalis). Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 126: 149-155.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  24. Wang J, Cheng S , Yi L, Cheng Y, Yang S, Xu H, et al. 2013. Detection of mink enteritis virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). J. Virol. Methods 187: 401-405.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  25. Yi L, Cheng Y , Zhang M , Cao Z , Tong M, Wang J, et al. 2015. Identification of a novel canine distemper virus B-cell epitope using a monoclonal antibody against nucleocapsid protein. Virus Res. 213: 1-5.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  26. Yi L, Tong M, Cheng Y, Song W, Cheng S. 2016. Phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus VP2 gene in China. Transbound Emerg. Dis. 63: e262-e269.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  27. Zarember KA, Godowski PJ. 2002. Tissue expression of human Toll-like receptors and differential regulation of Toll-like receptor mRNAs in leukocytes in response to microbes, their products, and cytokines. J. Immunol. 168:554-561.
    CrossRef
  28. Zhao JJ, Shi N, Sun YG, Martella V, Nikolin V, Zhu CS, et al. 2015. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks. Antiviral Res. 122:1-11.
    Pubmed CrossRef