전체메뉴
검색
Article Search

JMB Journal of Microbiolog and Biotechnology

QR Code QR Code

Research article

References

  1. Aas JA, Paster BJ, Stokes LN, Olsen I, Dewhirst FE. 2005. Defining the normal bacterial flora of the oral cavity. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 5721-5732.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  2. Abusleme L, Dupuy AK, Dutzan N, Silva N, Burleson JA, Strausbaugh LD, et al. 2013. The subgingival microbiome in health and periodontitis and its relationship with community biomass and inflammation. ISME J. 7: 1016-1025.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  3. Ahn JY, Yang LY, Paster BJ, Ganly I, Morris L, Pei ZH, Hayes RB. 2011. Oral microbiome profiles: 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and microarray assay comparison. PLoS One 6: e22788.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  4. Aylikci BU, Colak H. 2013. Halitosis: from diagnosis to management. J. Nat. Sci. Biol. Med. 4: 14-23.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  5. Bollen CM, Beikler T. 2012. Halitosis: the multidisciplinary approach. Int. J. Oral Sci. 4: 55-63.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  6. Chen T, Yu WH, Izard J, Baranova OV, Lakshmanan A, Dewhirst FE. 2010. The human oral microbiome database: a Web accessible resource for investigating oral microbe taxonomic and genomic information. Database (Oxford) 2010:baq013.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  7. Clarridge JE 3rd, Zhang Q. 2002. Genotypic diversity of clinical Actinomyces species: phenotype, source, and disease correlation among genospecies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 34423448.
    PMC CrossRef
  8. Desai SS, Harrison RA, Murphy MD. 2007. Capnocytophaga ochracea causing severe sepsis and purpura fulminans in an immunocompetent patient. J. Infect. 54: e107-e109.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Dewhirst FE, Chen T, Izard J, Paster BJ, Tanner AC, Yu WH, et al. 2010. The human oral microbiome. J. Bacteriol. 192: 5002-5017.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  10. Diaz PI, Dupuy AK, Abusleme L, Reese B, Obergfell C, Choquette L, et al. 2012. Using high throughput sequencing to explore the biodiversity in oral bacterial communities. Mol. Oral Microbiol. 27: 182-201.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  11. Donaldson AC, McKenzie D, Riggio MP, Hodge PJ, Rolph H, Flanagan A, Bagg J. 2005. Microbiological culture analysis of the tongue anaerobic microflora in subjects with and without halitosis. Oral Dis. 11: 61-63.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Eribe ER, Olsen I. 2008. Leptotrichia species in human infections. Anaerobe 14: 131-137.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Eribe ER, Paster BJ, Caugant DA, Dewhirst FE, Stromberg VK, Lacy GH, Olsen I. 2004. Genetic diversity of Leptotrichia and description of Leptotrichia goodfellowii sp. nov., Leptotrichia hofstadii sp. nov., Leptotrichia shahii sp. nov. and Leptotrichia wadei sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54: 583592.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Hughes FJ, McNab R. 2008. Oral malodour - a review. Arch. Oral Biol. 53: S1-S7.
    CrossRef
  15. Human Microbiome Project Consortium. 2012. A framework for human microbiome research. Nature 486: 215-221.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  16. Kazor CE, Mitchell PM, Lee AM, Stokes LN, Loesche WJ, Dewhirst FE, Paster BJ. 2003. Diversity of bacterial populations on the tongue dorsa of patients with halitosis and healthy patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 558-563.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  17. Kleinberg I, Westbay G. 1990. Oral malodor. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 1: 247-259.
    Pubmed
  18. Krespi YP, Shrime MG, Kacker A. 2006. The relationship between oral malodor and volatile sulfur compoundproducing bacteria. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135: 671676.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  19. Langille MG, Zaneveld J, Caporaso JG, McDonald D, Knights D, Reyes JA, et al. 2013. Predictive functional profiling of microbial communities using 16S rRNA marker gene sequences. Nat. Biotechnol. 31: 814-821.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  20. Marsh PD. 2003. Are dental diseases examples of ecological catastrophes? Microbiology 149: 279-294.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  21. Marsh PD. 2006. Dental diseases - are these examples of ecological catastrophes? Int. J. Dent. Hyg. 4: 3-10; discussion 50-12.
  22. Ning J, Beiko RG. 2015. Phylogenetic approaches to microbial community classification. Microbiome 3: 47.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  23. Persson S, Edlund MB, Claesson R, Carlsson J. 1990. The formation of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan by oral bacteria. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 5: 195-201.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  24. Ren W, Xun Z, Wang Z, Zhang Q, Liu X, Zheng H, et al. 2016. Tongue coating and the salivary microbial communities vary in children with halitosis. Sci. Rep. 6: 24481.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  25. Rosenstein ED, Weissmann G, Greenwald RA. 2009. Porphyromonas gingivalis, periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Med. Hypotheses 73: 457-458.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  26. Samnieng P, Ueno M, Shinada K, Zaitsu T, Kawaguchi Y. 2012. Daily variation of oral malodour and related factors in community-dwelling elderly Thai. Gerodontology 29: E964E971.
  27. Scully C, Greenman J. 2008. Halitosis (breath odor). Periodontology 2000 48: 66-75.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  28. Segata N, Izard J, Waldron L, Gevers D, Miropolsky L, Garrett WS, Huttenhower C. 2011. Metagenomic biomarker discovery and explanation. Genome Biol. 12: R60.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  29. Takeshita T, Suzuki N, Nakano Y, Yasui M, Yoneda M, Shimazaki Y, et al. 2012. Discrimination of the oral microbiota associated with high hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan production. Sci. Rep. 2: 215.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  30. Tanaka M, Yamamoto Y, Kuboniwa M, Nonaka A, Nishida N, Maeda K, et al. 2004. Contribution of periodontal pathogens on tongue dorsa analyzed with real-time PCR to oral malodor. Microbes Infect. 6: 1078-1083.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  31. Tanaka S, Yoshida M, Murakami Y, Ogiwara T, Shoji M, Kobayashi S, et al. 2008. The relationship of Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens and Prevotella melaninogenica in the supragingival plaque of children, caries and oral malodor. J. Clin. Pediatr. Dent. 32: 195-200.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  32. Tanner AC. 2015. Anaerobic culture to detect periodontal and caries pathogens. J. Oral Biosci. 57: 18-26.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  33. Torresyap G, Haffajee AD, Uzel NG, Socransky SS. 2003. Relationship between periodontal pocket sulfide levels and subgingival species. J. Clin. Periodontol. 30: 1003-1010.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  34. Tyrrell KL, Citron DM, Warren YA, Nachnani S, Goldstein EJC. 2003. Anaerobic bacteria cultured from the tongue dorsum of subjects with oral malodor. Anaerobe 9: 243-246.
    CrossRef
  35. Washio J, Sato T, Koseki T, Takahashi N. 2005. Hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria in tongue biofilm and their relationship with oral malodour. J. Med. Microbiol. 54: 889-895.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  36. Xu H, Hao W, Zhou Q, Wang W, Xia Z, Liu C, et al. 2014. Plaque bacterial microbiome diversity in children younger than 30 months with or without caries prior to eruption of second primary molars. PLoS One 9: e89269.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  37. Xu X, He JZ, Xue J, Wang Y, Li K, Zhang KK, et al. 2015. Oral cavity contains distinct niches with dynamic microbial communities. Environ. Microbiol. 17: 699-710.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  38. Yang F, Huang S, He T, Catrenich C, Teng F, Bo C, et al. 2013. Microbial basis of oral malodor development in humans. J. Dent. Res. 92: 1106-1112.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  39. Yang F, Zeng X, Ning K, Liu KL, Lo CC, Wang W, et al. 2012. Saliva microbiomes distinguish caries-active from healthy human populations. ISME J. 6: 1-10.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  40. Zeng B, Han S, Wang P, Wen B, Jian W, Guo W, et al. 2015. The bacterial communities associated with fecal types and body weight of rex rabbits. Sci. Rep. 5: 9342.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef

Article

Research article

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2016; 26(12): 2141-2147

Published online December 28, 2016 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1605.05012

Copyright © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Supragingival Plaque Microbial Community Analysis of Children with Halitosis

Wen Ren 1, Qun Zhang 1, Xuenan Liu 1, Shuguo Zheng 1, Lili Ma 2, Feng Chen 3, Tao Xu 1 and Baohua Xu 2*

1Department of Preventive Dentistry, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing 100081, P.R. China, 2Stomatology Center, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, P.R. China, 3Central Laboratory, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing 100081, P.R. China

Received: May 9, 2016; Accepted: September 4, 2016

Abstract

As one of the most complex human-associated microbial habitats, the oral cavity harbors
hundreds of bacteria. Halitosis is a prevalent oral condition that is typically caused by
bacteria. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbial communities and predict
functional profiles in supragingival plaque from healthy individuals and those with halitosis.
Ten preschool children were enrolled in this study; five with halitosis and five without.
Supragingival plaque was isolated from each participant and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing
was used to identify the microbes present. Samples were primarily composed of
Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and Candidate
phylum TM7. The α and β diversity indices did not differ between healthy and halitosis
subjects. Fifteen operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified with significantly
different relative abundances between healthy and halitosis plaques, and included the
phylotypes of Prevotella sp., Leptotrichia sp., Actinomyces sp., Porphyromonas sp., Selenomonas
sp., Selenomonas noxia, and Capnocytophaga ochracea. We suggest that these OTUs are candidate halitosis-associated pathogens. Functional profiles were predicted using PICRUSt, and nine
level-3 KEGG Orthology groups were significantly different. Hub modules of co-occurrence
networks implied that microbes in halitosis dental plaque were more highly conserved than
microbes of healthy individuals’ plaque. Collectively, our data provide a background for the
oral microbiota associated with halitosis from supragingival plaque, and help explain the
etiology of halitosis.

Keywords: Halitosis, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, PICRUSt, microbiome

References

  1. Aas JA, Paster BJ, Stokes LN, Olsen I, Dewhirst FE. 2005. Defining the normal bacterial flora of the oral cavity. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 5721-5732.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  2. Abusleme L, Dupuy AK, Dutzan N, Silva N, Burleson JA, Strausbaugh LD, et al. 2013. The subgingival microbiome in health and periodontitis and its relationship with community biomass and inflammation. ISME J. 7: 1016-1025.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  3. Ahn JY, Yang LY, Paster BJ, Ganly I, Morris L, Pei ZH, Hayes RB. 2011. Oral microbiome profiles: 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and microarray assay comparison. PLoS One 6: e22788.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  4. Aylikci BU, Colak H. 2013. Halitosis: from diagnosis to management. J. Nat. Sci. Biol. Med. 4: 14-23.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  5. Bollen CM, Beikler T. 2012. Halitosis: the multidisciplinary approach. Int. J. Oral Sci. 4: 55-63.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  6. Chen T, Yu WH, Izard J, Baranova OV, Lakshmanan A, Dewhirst FE. 2010. The human oral microbiome database: a Web accessible resource for investigating oral microbe taxonomic and genomic information. Database (Oxford) 2010:baq013.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  7. Clarridge JE 3rd, Zhang Q. 2002. Genotypic diversity of clinical Actinomyces species: phenotype, source, and disease correlation among genospecies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 34423448.
    KoreaMed CrossRef
  8. Desai SS, Harrison RA, Murphy MD. 2007. Capnocytophaga ochracea causing severe sepsis and purpura fulminans in an immunocompetent patient. J. Infect. 54: e107-e109.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Dewhirst FE, Chen T, Izard J, Paster BJ, Tanner AC, Yu WH, et al. 2010. The human oral microbiome. J. Bacteriol. 192: 5002-5017.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  10. Diaz PI, Dupuy AK, Abusleme L, Reese B, Obergfell C, Choquette L, et al. 2012. Using high throughput sequencing to explore the biodiversity in oral bacterial communities. Mol. Oral Microbiol. 27: 182-201.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  11. Donaldson AC, McKenzie D, Riggio MP, Hodge PJ, Rolph H, Flanagan A, Bagg J. 2005. Microbiological culture analysis of the tongue anaerobic microflora in subjects with and without halitosis. Oral Dis. 11: 61-63.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Eribe ER, Olsen I. 2008. Leptotrichia species in human infections. Anaerobe 14: 131-137.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Eribe ER, Paster BJ, Caugant DA, Dewhirst FE, Stromberg VK, Lacy GH, Olsen I. 2004. Genetic diversity of Leptotrichia and description of Leptotrichia goodfellowii sp. nov., Leptotrichia hofstadii sp. nov., Leptotrichia shahii sp. nov. and Leptotrichia wadei sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54: 583592.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Hughes FJ, McNab R. 2008. Oral malodour - a review. Arch. Oral Biol. 53: S1-S7.
    CrossRef
  15. Human Microbiome Project Consortium. 2012. A framework for human microbiome research. Nature 486: 215-221.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  16. Kazor CE, Mitchell PM, Lee AM, Stokes LN, Loesche WJ, Dewhirst FE, Paster BJ. 2003. Diversity of bacterial populations on the tongue dorsa of patients with halitosis and healthy patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 558-563.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  17. Kleinberg I, Westbay G. 1990. Oral malodor. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 1: 247-259.
    Pubmed
  18. Krespi YP, Shrime MG, Kacker A. 2006. The relationship between oral malodor and volatile sulfur compoundproducing bacteria. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135: 671676.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  19. Langille MG, Zaneveld J, Caporaso JG, McDonald D, Knights D, Reyes JA, et al. 2013. Predictive functional profiling of microbial communities using 16S rRNA marker gene sequences. Nat. Biotechnol. 31: 814-821.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  20. Marsh PD. 2003. Are dental diseases examples of ecological catastrophes? Microbiology 149: 279-294.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  21. Marsh PD. 2006. Dental diseases - are these examples of ecological catastrophes? Int. J. Dent. Hyg. 4: 3-10; discussion 50-12.
  22. Ning J, Beiko RG. 2015. Phylogenetic approaches to microbial community classification. Microbiome 3: 47.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  23. Persson S, Edlund MB, Claesson R, Carlsson J. 1990. The formation of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan by oral bacteria. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 5: 195-201.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  24. Ren W, Xun Z, Wang Z, Zhang Q, Liu X, Zheng H, et al. 2016. Tongue coating and the salivary microbial communities vary in children with halitosis. Sci. Rep. 6: 24481.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  25. Rosenstein ED, Weissmann G, Greenwald RA. 2009. Porphyromonas gingivalis, periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Med. Hypotheses 73: 457-458.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  26. Samnieng P, Ueno M, Shinada K, Zaitsu T, Kawaguchi Y. 2012. Daily variation of oral malodour and related factors in community-dwelling elderly Thai. Gerodontology 29: E964E971.
  27. Scully C, Greenman J. 2008. Halitosis (breath odor). Periodontology 2000 48: 66-75.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  28. Segata N, Izard J, Waldron L, Gevers D, Miropolsky L, Garrett WS, Huttenhower C. 2011. Metagenomic biomarker discovery and explanation. Genome Biol. 12: R60.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  29. Takeshita T, Suzuki N, Nakano Y, Yasui M, Yoneda M, Shimazaki Y, et al. 2012. Discrimination of the oral microbiota associated with high hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan production. Sci. Rep. 2: 215.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  30. Tanaka M, Yamamoto Y, Kuboniwa M, Nonaka A, Nishida N, Maeda K, et al. 2004. Contribution of periodontal pathogens on tongue dorsa analyzed with real-time PCR to oral malodor. Microbes Infect. 6: 1078-1083.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  31. Tanaka S, Yoshida M, Murakami Y, Ogiwara T, Shoji M, Kobayashi S, et al. 2008. The relationship of Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens and Prevotella melaninogenica in the supragingival plaque of children, caries and oral malodor. J. Clin. Pediatr. Dent. 32: 195-200.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  32. Tanner AC. 2015. Anaerobic culture to detect periodontal and caries pathogens. J. Oral Biosci. 57: 18-26.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  33. Torresyap G, Haffajee AD, Uzel NG, Socransky SS. 2003. Relationship between periodontal pocket sulfide levels and subgingival species. J. Clin. Periodontol. 30: 1003-1010.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  34. Tyrrell KL, Citron DM, Warren YA, Nachnani S, Goldstein EJC. 2003. Anaerobic bacteria cultured from the tongue dorsum of subjects with oral malodor. Anaerobe 9: 243-246.
    CrossRef
  35. Washio J, Sato T, Koseki T, Takahashi N. 2005. Hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria in tongue biofilm and their relationship with oral malodour. J. Med. Microbiol. 54: 889-895.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  36. Xu H, Hao W, Zhou Q, Wang W, Xia Z, Liu C, et al. 2014. Plaque bacterial microbiome diversity in children younger than 30 months with or without caries prior to eruption of second primary molars. PLoS One 9: e89269.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  37. Xu X, He JZ, Xue J, Wang Y, Li K, Zhang KK, et al. 2015. Oral cavity contains distinct niches with dynamic microbial communities. Environ. Microbiol. 17: 699-710.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  38. Yang F, Huang S, He T, Catrenich C, Teng F, Bo C, et al. 2013. Microbial basis of oral malodor development in humans. J. Dent. Res. 92: 1106-1112.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  39. Yang F, Zeng X, Ning K, Liu KL, Lo CC, Wang W, et al. 2012. Saliva microbiomes distinguish caries-active from healthy human populations. ISME J. 6: 1-10.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  40. Zeng B, Han S, Wang P, Wen B, Jian W, Guo W, et al. 2015. The bacterial communities associated with fecal types and body weight of rex rabbits. Sci. Rep. 5: 9342.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef