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References

  1. Benzie IF, Strain JJ. 1996. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal. Biochem. 239: 70-76.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Beppu H, Nagamura Y, Fujita K. 1993. Hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic effects in mice of Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger. Phytother. Res. 7: 37-42.
    CrossRef
  3. Berridge MV, Tan AS. 1993. Characterization of the cellular reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT): subcellular localization, substrate dependence, and involvement of mitochondrial electron transport in MTT reduction. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 303: 474-482.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Butterfield D, Castegna A, Pocernich C, Drake J, Scapagnini G, Calabrese V. 2002. Nutritional approaches to combat oxidative stress in Alzheimer’s disease. J. Nutr. Biochem. 13:444-461.
    CrossRef
  5. Carocho M, Ferreira IC. 2013. A review on antioxidants, prooxidants and related controversy: natural and synthetic compounds, screening and analysis methodologies and future perspectives. Food Chem. Toxicol. 51: 15-25.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Chithra P, Sajithlal GB, Chandrakasan G. 1998. Influence of aloe vera on the healing of dermal wounds in diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 59: 195-201.
    CrossRef
  7. Du B, Xu B. 2014. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of βglucans from different sources with various molecular weight. Bioact. Carbohydr. Diet. Fibre. 3: 11-16.
    CrossRef
  8. Gao JJ, Igalashi K, Nukina M. 1999. Radical scavenging activity of phenylpropanoid glycosides in Caryopteris incana. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 63: 983-988.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Gomes A, Fernandes E, Lima JLFC. 2005. Fluorescence probes used for detection of reactive oxygen species. J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 65: 45-80.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Griendling KK, Sorescu D, Lassegue B, Ushio-Fukai M. 2000. Modulation of protein kinase activity and gene expression by reactive oxygen species and their role in vascular physiology and pathophysiology. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20: 2175-2183.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Grindlay D, Reynolds T. 1986. The Aloe vera phenomenon: a review of the properties and modern uses of the leaf parenchyma gel. J. Ethnopharmacol. 16: 117-151.
    CrossRef
  12. Gulia A, Sharma HK, Sarkar BC, Upadhyay A, Shitandi A. 2010. Changes in physico-chemical and functional properties during convective drying of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) leaves. Food Bioprod. Process 88: 161-164.
    CrossRef
  13. Haidara K, Morel I, Abalea V, Gascon Barre M, Denizeau F. 2002. Mechanism of tert-butylhydroperoxide induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes: involvement of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1542: 173-185.
    CrossRef
  14. Hart LA, van Enckevort PH, van Dijk H, Zaat R, de Silva KT, Labadie RP. 1988. Two functionally and chemically distinct immunomodulatory compounds in the gel of Aloe vera. J. Ethnopharmacol. 23: 61-71.
    CrossRef
  15. Huang D, Ou B, Prior RL. 2005. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53: 1841-1856.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Je JY, Park PJ, Kim SK. 2005. Antioxidant activity of a peptide isolated from Alaska pollack (Theragra chalcogramma) frame protein hydrolysate. Food Res. Int. 38: 45-50.
    CrossRef
  17. Jones PJ, Ntanios FY, Raeini-Sarjaz M, Vanstone CA. 1999. Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of a sitostanol-containing phytosterol mixture with a prudent diet in hyperlipidemic men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 69: 1144-1150.
    Pubmed
  18. Kim EK, Lee SJ, Lim BO, Jeon YJ, Song MD, Park TK, et al. 2008. Antioxidative and neuroprotective effects of enzymatic extracts from leaves of Perilla frutescens var. japonica. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 17: 279-286.
  19. Kim HJ, Leeb KW, Kim MS, Lee HJ. 2008. Piceatannol attenuates hydrogen-peroxide- and peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis of PC12 cells by blocking down-regulation of BclX(L) and activation of JNK. J. Nutr. Biochem. 19: 459-466.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  20. Larsson SC, Kumlin M, Ingelman-Sundberg M, Wolk A. 2004. Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of cancer: a review of potential mechanisms. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 79: 935-945.
    Pubmed
  21. Lee SJ, Kim EK, Kim YS, Hwang JW, Lee KH, Choi DK, et al. 2012. Purification and characterization of a nitric oxide inhibitory peptide from Ruditapes philippinarum. Food Chem. Toxicol. 50: 1660-1666.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  22. Lee SJ, Kim KH, Kim YS, Kim EK, Hwang JW, Lim BO, et al. 2012. Biological activity from the gelatin hydrolysates of duck skin by-products. Process Biochem. 47: 1150-1154.
    CrossRef
  23. Lichtenstein AH, Deckelbaum RG. 2001. AHA Science Advisory. Stanol/sterol ester-containing foods and blood cholesterol levels. A statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association. Circulation 103: 1177-1179
    Pubmed CrossRef
  24. Miranda M, Maureira H, Rodriguez K, Vega-Galvez A. 2009. Influence of temperature on the drying kinetics, physicochemical properties, and antioxidant capacity of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel. J. Food Eng. 91: 297-304.
    CrossRef
  25. Meda A, Lamien CE, Romito M, Millogo J, Nacoulma OG. 2005. Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid and proline contents in Burkina Fasan honey, as well as their radical scavenging activity. Food Chem. 91: 571-577.
    CrossRef
  26. Nejatzadeh-Barandozi F. 2013. Antibacterial activities and antioxidant capacity of Aloe vera. Org. Med. Chem. Lett. 3: 1-8.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  27. Normen L, Dutta P, Lia A, Andersson H. 2000. Soy sterol esters and a-sitostanol ester as inhibitors of cholesterol absorption in human small bowel. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71: 908-913.
    Pubmed
  28. Okyar A, Can A, Akev N, Baktir G, Sutlupinar N. 2001. Effect of Aloe vera leaves on blood glucose level in type I and type II diabetic rat models. Phytother. Res. 15: 157-161.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  29. Ou BX, Huang DJ, Hampsch-Woodill M, Flanagan JA, Deemer EK. 2002. Analysis of antioxidant activities of common vegetables employing oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays: a comparative study. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50:3122-3128.
    CrossRef
  30. Park PJ, Jung WK, Nam KS, Shahidi F, Kim SK. 2001. Purification and characterization of antioxidative peptides from protein hydrolysate of lecithin-free egg yolk. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 78: 651-656.
    CrossRef
  31. Quettier-Deleu C, Gressier B, Vasseur J, Dine T, Brunet C, Luyckx M, et al. 2000. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) hulls and flour. J. Ethnopharmacol. 72: 35-42.
    CrossRef
  32. Ray A, Aswatha MS. 2013. An analysis of the influence of growth periods on physical appearance, and acemannan and elemental distribution of Aloe vera L. gel. Ind. Crop Prod. 48: 36-42.
    CrossRef
  33. Ray A, Gupta SD. 2013. A panoptic study of antioxidant potential of foliar gel at different harvesting regimens of Aloe vera L. Ind. Crop Prod. 51: 130-137.
    CrossRef
  34. Ray A, Gupta SD, Ghosh S. 2013. Evaluation of antioxidative activity and UV absorption potential of the extracts of Aloe vera L. gel from different growth periods of plants. Ind. Crop Prod. 49: 1712-1719.
    CrossRef
  35. Ray A, Dutta Gupta SD, Ghosh S. 2012. Isolation and characterization of potent bioactive fraction with antioxidant and UV absorbing activity from Aloe barbadensis Miller gel. J. Plant Biochem. Biotechnol. 22: 483-487.
    CrossRef
  36. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, RiceEvans C. 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 26: 1231-1237.
    CrossRef
  37. Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G. 1996. Structure antioxidant activity relationship of flavonoids and phenolic acid. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 20: 933-956.
    CrossRef
  38. Rodriguez-Gonzalez VM, Femenia A, Gonzalez-Laredo RF, Rocha-Guzman NE, Gallegos-Infante JA, Candelas-Cadillo MG, et al. 2011. Effects of pasteurization on bioactive polysaccharide acemannan and cell-wall polymers from Aloe barbadensis Miller. Carbohydr. Polym. 86: 1675-1683.
    CrossRef
  39. Scalbert A, Manach C, Morand C, Remesy C, Jimenez L. 2005. D ietary p olyphenols a nd t he p revention of d is eas es. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. 45: 287-306.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  40. Sultana B, Anwar F, Ashraf M. 2009. Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts. Molecules 14: 2167-2180.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  41. Teijido O, Dejean L. 2010. Upregulation of Bcl2 inhibits apoptosis-driven BAX insertion but favors BAX relocalization in mitochondria. FEBS Lett. 584: 3305-3310.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  42. Vijayalakshmi D, Dhandapani R, Jayaveni S, Jithendra PS, Rose C, Mandal AB. 2012. In vitro anti inflammatory activity of Aloe vera by down regulation of MMP-9 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J. Ethnopharmacol. 141: 542-546.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  43. Xi WP, Fang B, Zhao QY, Jiao BN, Zhou ZQ. 2014. Flavonoid composition and antioxidant activities of Chinese local pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck.) varieties. Food Chem. 161: 230-238.
    Pubmed CrossRef

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Article

Research article

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2015; 25(12): 2072-2081

Published online December 28, 2015 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1504.04035

Copyright © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Growth Period Effects on the Protective Properties of Aloe vera Against t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress in Chang Cells

Jin-Woo Hwang 1, Eun-Kyung Kim 2, 3, Yon-Suk Kim 1, Jae Woong Lee 1, Jeong-Jun Lee 4, Han-Jong Pyo 4, Sang-Ho Moon 2, 3, Byong-Tae Jeon 2, 3 and Pyo-Jam Park 1, 3*

1Department of Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701, Republic of Korea, 2Division of Food and Bio Science, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701, Republic of Korea, 3Nokyong Research Center, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701, Republic of Korea, 4Central Research Institute, Naturetech, Jincheon 365-850, Republic of Korea

Received: April 14, 2015; Accepted: September 14, 2015

Abstract

Aloe vera has been used in traditional medicine for the therapy of a variety of disorders, such
as wounds and burns. However, few studies have examined the antioxidant capacities of A.
vera plants during different growth periods. In order to investigate the effects of growth on
antioxidant activity, A. vera was prepared from 2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, and 12-month-old aloe. The
extracts from 6-month-old A. vera showed the highest contents of flavonoids (9.750 mg
catechin equivalent/g extract) and polyphenols (23.375 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract)
and the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.047 mM ferrous sulfate equivalent/mg
extract). The extract from 6-month-old A. vera exhibited the highest free radical scavenging
potential, and the lowest IC50 values were found for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (0.26 mg/ml)
and alkyl radicals (0.50 mg/ml). In addition, the extract from 6-month-old A. vera showed the
greatest effects on cell viability in normal liver cells. Based on these findings, the extract from
6-month-old A. vera was examined further in order to determine its protective potential
against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress. The extract from 6-monthold
A. vera at a concentration of 0.25 mg/ml showed the highest protective activity against
t-BHP-induced reactive oxygen species production. These findings suggested that harvesting
regimens were critical in the regulation of effects of the bioactive potential of A. vera on
antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Aloe vera, growth period, antioxidant activity

References

  1. Benzie IF, Strain JJ. 1996. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal. Biochem. 239: 70-76.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Beppu H, Nagamura Y, Fujita K. 1993. Hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic effects in mice of Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger. Phytother. Res. 7: 37-42.
    CrossRef
  3. Berridge MV, Tan AS. 1993. Characterization of the cellular reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT): subcellular localization, substrate dependence, and involvement of mitochondrial electron transport in MTT reduction. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 303: 474-482.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Butterfield D, Castegna A, Pocernich C, Drake J, Scapagnini G, Calabrese V. 2002. Nutritional approaches to combat oxidative stress in Alzheimer’s disease. J. Nutr. Biochem. 13:444-461.
    CrossRef
  5. Carocho M, Ferreira IC. 2013. A review on antioxidants, prooxidants and related controversy: natural and synthetic compounds, screening and analysis methodologies and future perspectives. Food Chem. Toxicol. 51: 15-25.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Chithra P, Sajithlal GB, Chandrakasan G. 1998. Influence of aloe vera on the healing of dermal wounds in diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 59: 195-201.
    CrossRef
  7. Du B, Xu B. 2014. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of βglucans from different sources with various molecular weight. Bioact. Carbohydr. Diet. Fibre. 3: 11-16.
    CrossRef
  8. Gao JJ, Igalashi K, Nukina M. 1999. Radical scavenging activity of phenylpropanoid glycosides in Caryopteris incana. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 63: 983-988.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Gomes A, Fernandes E, Lima JLFC. 2005. Fluorescence probes used for detection of reactive oxygen species. J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 65: 45-80.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Griendling KK, Sorescu D, Lassegue B, Ushio-Fukai M. 2000. Modulation of protein kinase activity and gene expression by reactive oxygen species and their role in vascular physiology and pathophysiology. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20: 2175-2183.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Grindlay D, Reynolds T. 1986. The Aloe vera phenomenon: a review of the properties and modern uses of the leaf parenchyma gel. J. Ethnopharmacol. 16: 117-151.
    CrossRef
  12. Gulia A, Sharma HK, Sarkar BC, Upadhyay A, Shitandi A. 2010. Changes in physico-chemical and functional properties during convective drying of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) leaves. Food Bioprod. Process 88: 161-164.
    CrossRef
  13. Haidara K, Morel I, Abalea V, Gascon Barre M, Denizeau F. 2002. Mechanism of tert-butylhydroperoxide induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes: involvement of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1542: 173-185.
    CrossRef
  14. Hart LA, van Enckevort PH, van Dijk H, Zaat R, de Silva KT, Labadie RP. 1988. Two functionally and chemically distinct immunomodulatory compounds in the gel of Aloe vera. J. Ethnopharmacol. 23: 61-71.
    CrossRef
  15. Huang D, Ou B, Prior RL. 2005. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53: 1841-1856.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Je JY, Park PJ, Kim SK. 2005. Antioxidant activity of a peptide isolated from Alaska pollack (Theragra chalcogramma) frame protein hydrolysate. Food Res. Int. 38: 45-50.
    CrossRef
  17. Jones PJ, Ntanios FY, Raeini-Sarjaz M, Vanstone CA. 1999. Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of a sitostanol-containing phytosterol mixture with a prudent diet in hyperlipidemic men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 69: 1144-1150.
    Pubmed
  18. Kim EK, Lee SJ, Lim BO, Jeon YJ, Song MD, Park TK, et al. 2008. Antioxidative and neuroprotective effects of enzymatic extracts from leaves of Perilla frutescens var. japonica. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 17: 279-286.
  19. Kim HJ, Leeb KW, Kim MS, Lee HJ. 2008. Piceatannol attenuates hydrogen-peroxide- and peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis of PC12 cells by blocking down-regulation of BclX(L) and activation of JNK. J. Nutr. Biochem. 19: 459-466.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  20. Larsson SC, Kumlin M, Ingelman-Sundberg M, Wolk A. 2004. Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of cancer: a review of potential mechanisms. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 79: 935-945.
    Pubmed
  21. Lee SJ, Kim EK, Kim YS, Hwang JW, Lee KH, Choi DK, et al. 2012. Purification and characterization of a nitric oxide inhibitory peptide from Ruditapes philippinarum. Food Chem. Toxicol. 50: 1660-1666.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  22. Lee SJ, Kim KH, Kim YS, Kim EK, Hwang JW, Lim BO, et al. 2012. Biological activity from the gelatin hydrolysates of duck skin by-products. Process Biochem. 47: 1150-1154.
    CrossRef
  23. Lichtenstein AH, Deckelbaum RG. 2001. AHA Science Advisory. Stanol/sterol ester-containing foods and blood cholesterol levels. A statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association. Circulation 103: 1177-1179
    Pubmed CrossRef
  24. Miranda M, Maureira H, Rodriguez K, Vega-Galvez A. 2009. Influence of temperature on the drying kinetics, physicochemical properties, and antioxidant capacity of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel. J. Food Eng. 91: 297-304.
    CrossRef
  25. Meda A, Lamien CE, Romito M, Millogo J, Nacoulma OG. 2005. Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid and proline contents in Burkina Fasan honey, as well as their radical scavenging activity. Food Chem. 91: 571-577.
    CrossRef
  26. Nejatzadeh-Barandozi F. 2013. Antibacterial activities and antioxidant capacity of Aloe vera. Org. Med. Chem. Lett. 3: 1-8.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  27. Normen L, Dutta P, Lia A, Andersson H. 2000. Soy sterol esters and a-sitostanol ester as inhibitors of cholesterol absorption in human small bowel. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71: 908-913.
    Pubmed
  28. Okyar A, Can A, Akev N, Baktir G, Sutlupinar N. 2001. Effect of Aloe vera leaves on blood glucose level in type I and type II diabetic rat models. Phytother. Res. 15: 157-161.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  29. Ou BX, Huang DJ, Hampsch-Woodill M, Flanagan JA, Deemer EK. 2002. Analysis of antioxidant activities of common vegetables employing oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays: a comparative study. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50:3122-3128.
    CrossRef
  30. Park PJ, Jung WK, Nam KS, Shahidi F, Kim SK. 2001. Purification and characterization of antioxidative peptides from protein hydrolysate of lecithin-free egg yolk. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 78: 651-656.
    CrossRef
  31. Quettier-Deleu C, Gressier B, Vasseur J, Dine T, Brunet C, Luyckx M, et al. 2000. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) hulls and flour. J. Ethnopharmacol. 72: 35-42.
    CrossRef
  32. Ray A, Aswatha MS. 2013. An analysis of the influence of growth periods on physical appearance, and acemannan and elemental distribution of Aloe vera L. gel. Ind. Crop Prod. 48: 36-42.
    CrossRef
  33. Ray A, Gupta SD. 2013. A panoptic study of antioxidant potential of foliar gel at different harvesting regimens of Aloe vera L. Ind. Crop Prod. 51: 130-137.
    CrossRef
  34. Ray A, Gupta SD, Ghosh S. 2013. Evaluation of antioxidative activity and UV absorption potential of the extracts of Aloe vera L. gel from different growth periods of plants. Ind. Crop Prod. 49: 1712-1719.
    CrossRef
  35. Ray A, Dutta Gupta SD, Ghosh S. 2012. Isolation and characterization of potent bioactive fraction with antioxidant and UV absorbing activity from Aloe barbadensis Miller gel. J. Plant Biochem. Biotechnol. 22: 483-487.
    CrossRef
  36. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, RiceEvans C. 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 26: 1231-1237.
    CrossRef
  37. Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G. 1996. Structure antioxidant activity relationship of flavonoids and phenolic acid. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 20: 933-956.
    CrossRef
  38. Rodriguez-Gonzalez VM, Femenia A, Gonzalez-Laredo RF, Rocha-Guzman NE, Gallegos-Infante JA, Candelas-Cadillo MG, et al. 2011. Effects of pasteurization on bioactive polysaccharide acemannan and cell-wall polymers from Aloe barbadensis Miller. Carbohydr. Polym. 86: 1675-1683.
    CrossRef
  39. Scalbert A, Manach C, Morand C, Remesy C, Jimenez L. 2005. D ietary p olyphenols a nd t he p revention of d is eas es. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. 45: 287-306.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  40. Sultana B, Anwar F, Ashraf M. 2009. Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts. Molecules 14: 2167-2180.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  41. Teijido O, Dejean L. 2010. Upregulation of Bcl2 inhibits apoptosis-driven BAX insertion but favors BAX relocalization in mitochondria. FEBS Lett. 584: 3305-3310.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  42. Vijayalakshmi D, Dhandapani R, Jayaveni S, Jithendra PS, Rose C, Mandal AB. 2012. In vitro anti inflammatory activity of Aloe vera by down regulation of MMP-9 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J. Ethnopharmacol. 141: 542-546.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  43. Xi WP, Fang B, Zhao QY, Jiao BN, Zhou ZQ. 2014. Flavonoid composition and antioxidant activities of Chinese local pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck.) varieties. Food Chem. 161: 230-238.
    Pubmed CrossRef