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References

  1. Athar M, Khan WA, Mukhtar H. 1989. Effect of dietary tannic acid on epidermal, lung, and forestomach polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism and tumorigenicity in Sencar mice. Cancer Res. 49: 5784-5788.
    Pubmed
  2. Blois MS. 1958. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181: 1199-1200.
    CrossRef
  3. Cai Y, Sun M, Corke H. 2003. Antioxidant activity of betalains from plants of the Amaranthaceae. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 2288-2294.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Czerwinski J, Bartnikowska E, Leontowicz H, Lange E, Leontowicz M, Katrich E, et al. 2004. Oat (Avena sativa L.) and amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) meals positively affect plasma lipid profile in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets. J. Nutr. Biochem. 15: 622-629.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Di Domeni F, Foppoli C, Coccia R, Perluigi M. 2012. Antioxidants in cervical cancer: chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of polyphenols. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1822: 737-747.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Ferguson LR. 2001. Role of plant polyphenols in genomic stability. Mutat. Res. 475: 89-111.
    CrossRef
  7. Green LC, Wagner DA, Glogowski J, Skipper PL, Wishnok JS, Tannenbaum SR. 1982. Analysis of nitrate, nitrite, and [15N] nitrate in biological fluids. Anal. Biochem. 126: 131-138.
    CrossRef
  8. Gülçin , Huyut Z, Elmasta M, Aboul-Enein HY. 2010. Radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of tannic acid. Arab. J. Chem. 3: 43-53.
    CrossRef
  9. Jimenez P, Cabrero P, Basterrechea JE, Tejero J, CordobaDiaz D, Cordoba-Diaz M, Girbes T. 2014. Effects of shortterm heating on total polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity and lectins of different parts of dwarf elder (Sambucus ebulus L.). Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 69: 168-174.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Kalinova J, Dadakova E. 2009. Rutin and total quercetin content in amaranth (Amaranthus spp.). Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 64: 68-74.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Kim HW, Murakami A, Nakamura Y, Ohigashi H. 2002. Screening of edible Japanese plants for suppressive effects on phorbol ester-induced superoxide generation in differentiated HL-60 cells and AS52 cells. Cancer Lett. 176: 7-16.
    CrossRef
  12. Kim HY, Sin SM, Lee S, Cho KM, Cho EJ. 2013. The butanol fraction of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) scavenges free radicals and attenuates oxidative stress. Prev. Nutr. Food Sci. 18: 18-22.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  13. Kunyanga CN, Imungi JK, Okoth M, Momanyi C, Biesalski HK, Vadivel V. 2011. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of condensed tannins in acetonic extract of selected raw and processed indigenous food ingredients from Kenya. J. Food Sci. 76: C560-C567.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Marikovsky M, Ziv V, Nevo N, Harris-Cerruti C, Mahler O. 2003. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase plays important role in immune response. J. Immunol. 170: 2993-3001.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Martirosyan DM, Miroshnichenko LA, Kulakova SN, Pogojeva AV, Zoloedov VI. 2007. Amaranth oil application for coronary heart disease and hypertension. Lipids Health Dis. 6: 1-12.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  16. Nakamura Y, Ohto Y, Murakami A, Ohigashi H. 1998. Superoxide scavenging activity of rosmarinic acid from Perilla frutescens Britton var. acuta f. viridis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46: 4545-4550.
    CrossRef
  17. Oszmianski J, Wojdylo A, Lamer-Zarawska E, Swiader K. 2007. Antioxidant tannins from Rosaceae plant roots. Food Chem. 100: 579-583.
    CrossRef
  18. Oyaizu M. 1986. Studies on product of browning reaction prepared from glucoseamine. Jap. J. Nutr. 44: 307-315.
    CrossRef
  19. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, RiceEvans C. 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 26: 1231-1237.
    CrossRef
  20. Shahidi F, Wanasundara PK. 1992. Phenolic antioxidants. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 32: 67-103.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  21. Yawadio Nsimba R, Kikuzaki H, Konishi Y. 2008. Antioxidant activity of various extracts and fractions of Chenopodium quinoa and Amaranthus spp. seeds. Food Chem. 106: 760-766.
    CrossRef
  22. Yazdanparast R, Ardestani A. 2007. In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Cyperus rotundus. J. Med. Food 10: 667-674.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  23. Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. 1999. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem. 64: 555-559.
    CrossRef

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Article

Research article

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2015; 25(6): 795-802

Published online June 28, 2015 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1409.09088

Copyright © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Radical Scavenging Activities of Tannin Extracted from Amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.)

Hyeon-Ju Jo 1, Kang-Hyun Chung 1, Jin A Yoon 2, Kwon-Jai Lee 3, Byeong Chun Song 4 and Jeung Hee An 4*

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul National University of Science & Technology, Seoul 139-743, Republic of Korea, 2Department of Food & Nutrition, Baewha Women’s University, Seoul 110-735, Republic of Korea, 3Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Daejeon University, Daejeon 300-716, Republic of Korea, 4Division of Food Bioscience, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701, Republic of Korea

Received: September 29, 2014; Accepted: January 22, 2015

Abstract

This study investigates the bioactivity of tannin from amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.)
extracts. The antioxidant activities of the extracts from amaranth leaves, flowers, and seeds
were evaluated. Tannin from leaves of amaranth has been evaluated for superoxide
scavenging activity by using DPPH and ABTS+ analysis, reducing power, protective effect
against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in L-132 and BNL-CL2 cells, and inhibition of
superoxide radical effects on HL-60 cells. At a concentration of 100 μg/ml, tannin showed
protective effects and restored cell survival to 69.2% and 41.8% for L-132 and BNL-CL2 cells,
respectively. Furthermore, at the same concentration, tannin inhibited 41% of the activity of
the superoxide radical on HL-60 cells and 43.4% of the increase in nitric oxide levels in RAW
264.7 cells. The expression levels of the antioxidant-associated protein SOD-1 were
significantly increased in a concentration-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells treated with
tannin from amaranth leaves. These results suggest that tannin from the leaves of Amaranthus
caudatus L. is a promising source of antioxidant component that can be used as a food
preservative or nutraceutical.

Keywords: amaranth, antioxidant activity, tannin, superoxide scavenging activity, radical scavenging activity

References

  1. Athar M, Khan WA, Mukhtar H. 1989. Effect of dietary tannic acid on epidermal, lung, and forestomach polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism and tumorigenicity in Sencar mice. Cancer Res. 49: 5784-5788.
    Pubmed
  2. Blois MS. 1958. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181: 1199-1200.
    CrossRef
  3. Cai Y, Sun M, Corke H. 2003. Antioxidant activity of betalains from plants of the Amaranthaceae. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 2288-2294.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Czerwinski J, Bartnikowska E, Leontowicz H, Lange E, Leontowicz M, Katrich E, et al. 2004. Oat (Avena sativa L.) and amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) meals positively affect plasma lipid profile in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets. J. Nutr. Biochem. 15: 622-629.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Di Domeni F, Foppoli C, Coccia R, Perluigi M. 2012. Antioxidants in cervical cancer: chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of polyphenols. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1822: 737-747.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Ferguson LR. 2001. Role of plant polyphenols in genomic stability. Mutat. Res. 475: 89-111.
    CrossRef
  7. Green LC, Wagner DA, Glogowski J, Skipper PL, Wishnok JS, Tannenbaum SR. 1982. Analysis of nitrate, nitrite, and [15N] nitrate in biological fluids. Anal. Biochem. 126: 131-138.
    CrossRef
  8. Gülçin , Huyut Z, Elmasta M, Aboul-Enein HY. 2010. Radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of tannic acid. Arab. J. Chem. 3: 43-53.
    CrossRef
  9. Jimenez P, Cabrero P, Basterrechea JE, Tejero J, CordobaDiaz D, Cordoba-Diaz M, Girbes T. 2014. Effects of shortterm heating on total polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity and lectins of different parts of dwarf elder (Sambucus ebulus L.). Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 69: 168-174.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Kalinova J, Dadakova E. 2009. Rutin and total quercetin content in amaranth (Amaranthus spp.). Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 64: 68-74.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Kim HW, Murakami A, Nakamura Y, Ohigashi H. 2002. Screening of edible Japanese plants for suppressive effects on phorbol ester-induced superoxide generation in differentiated HL-60 cells and AS52 cells. Cancer Lett. 176: 7-16.
    CrossRef
  12. Kim HY, Sin SM, Lee S, Cho KM, Cho EJ. 2013. The butanol fraction of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) scavenges free radicals and attenuates oxidative stress. Prev. Nutr. Food Sci. 18: 18-22.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  13. Kunyanga CN, Imungi JK, Okoth M, Momanyi C, Biesalski HK, Vadivel V. 2011. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of condensed tannins in acetonic extract of selected raw and processed indigenous food ingredients from Kenya. J. Food Sci. 76: C560-C567.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Marikovsky M, Ziv V, Nevo N, Harris-Cerruti C, Mahler O. 2003. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase plays important role in immune response. J. Immunol. 170: 2993-3001.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Martirosyan DM, Miroshnichenko LA, Kulakova SN, Pogojeva AV, Zoloedov VI. 2007. Amaranth oil application for coronary heart disease and hypertension. Lipids Health Dis. 6: 1-12.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  16. Nakamura Y, Ohto Y, Murakami A, Ohigashi H. 1998. Superoxide scavenging activity of rosmarinic acid from Perilla frutescens Britton var. acuta f. viridis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46: 4545-4550.
    CrossRef
  17. Oszmianski J, Wojdylo A, Lamer-Zarawska E, Swiader K. 2007. Antioxidant tannins from Rosaceae plant roots. Food Chem. 100: 579-583.
    CrossRef
  18. Oyaizu M. 1986. Studies on product of browning reaction prepared from glucoseamine. Jap. J. Nutr. 44: 307-315.
    CrossRef
  19. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, RiceEvans C. 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 26: 1231-1237.
    CrossRef
  20. Shahidi F, Wanasundara PK. 1992. Phenolic antioxidants. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 32: 67-103.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  21. Yawadio Nsimba R, Kikuzaki H, Konishi Y. 2008. Antioxidant activity of various extracts and fractions of Chenopodium quinoa and Amaranthus spp. seeds. Food Chem. 106: 760-766.
    CrossRef
  22. Yazdanparast R, Ardestani A. 2007. In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Cyperus rotundus. J. Med. Food 10: 667-674.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  23. Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. 1999. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem. 64: 555-559.
    CrossRef