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References

  1. Benzie IF, Strain JJ. 1996. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal. Biochem. 239: 70-76.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Budak HN, Guzel-Seydim ZB. 2010. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of wine vinegars produced by two different techniques. J. Sci. Food Agric. 90: 2021-2026.
    CrossRef
  3. Chen JC, Chen QH, Guo Q, Ruan S, Ruan H, He GQ, Gu Q. 2010. Simultaneous determination of acetoin and tetramethylpyrazine in traditional vinegars by HPLC method. Food Chem. 122:1247-1252.
    CrossRef
  4. Chen PN, Chu SC, Chiou HL, Kuo WH, Chiang CL, Hsieh YS. 2006. Mulberry anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside, exhibited an inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion of a human lung cancer cell line. Cancer Lett. 235: 248-259.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Choung MG, Lim JD. 2012. Antioxidant, anticancer and immune activation of anthocyanin fraction from Rubus coreanus miquel fruits (Bokbunja). Korean J. Med. Crop Sci. 20:259-269.
    CrossRef
  6. Cuevas-Rodriìguez EO, Yousef GG, Garciìa-Saucedo PA, Loìpez-Medina J, Paredes-Loìpez O, Lila MA. 2010. Characterization of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in wild and domesticated Mexican blackberries (Rubus spp.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 58: 7458-7464.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Greco E, Cervellati R, Litterio ML. 2013. Antioxidant capacity and total reducing power of balsamic and traditional balsamic vinegar from Modena and Reggio Emilia by conventional chemical assays. Food Sci. Technol. 48: 114-120.
    CrossRef
  8. Hashimoto M, Obara K, Ozono M, Furuyashiki M, Ikeda T, Suda Y, Shigehisa H. 2012. Separation and characterization of the immunostimulatory components in unpolished rice black vinegar (Kurozu). J. Biosci. Bioeng. 21: 1729-1734.
  9. Hassimotto NMA, Genovese MI, Lajolo FM. 2005. Antioxidant activity of dietary fruits, vegetables, and commercial frozen fruit pulps. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53: 2928-2935.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Hong SM, Moon HS, Lee JH, Lee HI, Jeong JH, Lee MK, Seo KI. 2012. Development of functional vinegar by using cucumbers. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 41: 927-935.
    CrossRef
  11. Jeong CH, Choi GN, Kim JH, Kwak JH, Kang ST, Choi SG, Heo HJ. 2009. In vitro antioxidant properties and phenolic composition of Korean commercial vinegars. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 18: 1258-1262.
  12. Jo DJ, Park E J, Kim GR, Y eo SH, J eong YJ, Kwon JH. 2 012. Quality comparison of commercial cider vinegars by their acidity levels. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 44: 699-703.
  13. Jung ES, Lee S, Lim SH, Ha SH, Liu KH, Lee CH. 2013. Metabolite profiling of the short-term responses of rice leaves (Oryza sativa cv. Ilmi) cultivated under different LED lights and its correlations with antioxidant activities. Plant Sci. 210: 61-69.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Kawaii S, Tomono Y, Katase E, Ogawa K, Yano M. 1999. Quantitation of flavonoid constituents in citrus fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47: 3565-3571.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Kim J, Choi JN, Choi JH, Cha YS, Muthaiya MJ, Lee CH. 2013. Effect of fermented soybean product (Cheonggukjang) intake on metabolic parameters in mice fed a high-fat diet. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 57: 1886-1891.
    CrossRef
  16. Kim SA, Kim SH, Kim IS, Lee D, Dong MS, Na CS, Yoo HH. 2013. Simultaneous determination of bioactive phenolic compounds in the stem extract of Rhus verniciflua stokes by high performance liquid chromatography. Food Chem. 141:3813-3819.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Kim SH, Cho HK, Shin HS. 2012. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of commercial vinegar drinks in Korea. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 21: 1729-1734.
    CrossRef
  18. Kw on S H, J eong E J, L ee GD, Jeong Y J. 2 000. P reparation method of fruit vinegars by two stage fermentation and beverages including vinegar. Food Ind. Nutr. 5: 18-24.
  19. Lee S, Do SG, Kim SY, Kim J, Jin Y, Lee CH. 2012. Mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling and antioxidant activity of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) in different growth stages. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60: 11222-11228.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  20. Lee SW, Yoon SR, Kim GR, Woo SM, Jeong YJ. Yeo SH, et al. 2012. Effect of nuruk and fermentation method on organic acid and volatile compounds in brown rice vinegar. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 21: 453-460.
    CrossRef
  21. Lee SY, Kim HY, Lee S, Lee JM, Muthaiya MJ, Kim BS, et al. 2012. Mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling and bacterial diversity characterization of Korean traditional meju during fermentation. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 22: 1523-1531.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  22. Morales LM, González GA, Casas JA, Troncoso AM. 2001. Multivariate analysis of commercial and laboratory produced sherry wine vinegars: influence of acetification and aging. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 212: 676-682.
    CrossRef
  23. Nielsen MS, Frisvad JC, Nielsen PV. 1998. Protection by fungal starters against growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal spoilers of cheese. Food Microbiol. 42:91-99.
    CrossRef
  24. Ordoudi SA, Mantzouridou F, Daftsiou E, Malo C, Hatzidimitriou E, Nenadis N, Tsimidou MZ. 2014. Pomegranate juice functional constituents after alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation. J. Funct. Foods 8: 161-168.
    CrossRef
  25. Park SY, Chae K S, Son R H, J ung JH, Im Y R, K w on JW. 2012. Quality characteristic and antioxidant activity of bokbunja (Black raspberry) vinegars. Food Eng. Progress 16:340-346.
  26. Qiu J, Ren C, Fan J, Li Z. 2010. Antioxidant activities of aged oat vinegar in vitro and in mouse serum and liver. J. Sci. Food Agric. 90: 1951-1958.
    CrossRef
  27. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, RiceEvans C. 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 26: 1231-1237.
    CrossRef
  28. Seo H, Jeon BY, Yun A, Park DH. 2010. Effect of glasswort (Salicorniai herbacea L.) on microbial community variation in the vinegar-making process and vinegar characteristics. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 20: 1322-1330.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  29. Sugiyama A, Saitoh M, Takahara A. 2003. Acute cardiovascular effects of a new beverage made of wine vinegar and grape juice, assessed using an in vivo rat. Nutr. Res. 23: 1291-1296.
    CrossRef
  30. Tian Q, Giusti MM, Stoner GD, Schwartz SJ. 2006. Characterization of a new anthocyanin in black raspberries (Rubus occidentalis) by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Food Chem. 94: 465-468.
    CrossRef
  31. Yong JJ. 2009. Current trends and future prospects in the Korean vinegar industry. Food Sci. Ind. 42: 52-59.
  32. Yukiko Y, Eriko O. 2006. Antihypertensive effect of quercetin in rats fed with a high-fat high-sucrose diet. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 70: 933-939.
    Pubmed CrossRef

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Article

Research article

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2015; 25(2): 217-226

Published online February 28, 2015 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1408.08021

Copyright © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Comparison of Traditional and Commercial Vinegars Based on Metabolite Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

Yu Kyung Jang 1, Mee Youn Lee 1, Hyang Yeon Kim 1, Sarah Lee 1, Soo Hwan Yeo 2, Seong Yeol Baek 2 and Choong Hwan Lee 1*

1Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Republic of Korea, 2Fermented Food Science Division, Department of Agro-food Resource, NAAS, RDA, Jeollabuk-do 565-851, Republic of Korea

Received: August 11, 2014; Accepted: October 3, 2014

Abstract

Metabolite profiles of seven commercial vinegars and two traditional vinegars were
performed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry with multivariate
statistical analysis. During alcohol fermentation, yeast, nuruk, and koji were used as sugars for
nutrients and as fermentation substrates. Commercial and traditional vinegars were
significantly separated in the principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least square
discriminant analysis. Six sugars and sugar alcohols, three organic acids, and two other
components were selected as different metabolites. Target analysis by ultra-performance
liquid chromatography quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatographyion
trap-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry were used to detect several metabolites
having antioxidant activity, such as cyanidin-3-xylosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, and
quercetin, which were mainly detected in Rural Korean Black raspberry vinegar (RKB). These
metabolites contributed to the highest antioxidant activity measured in RKB among the nine
vinegars. This study revealed that MS-based metabolite profiling was useful in helping to
understand the metabolite differences between commercial and traditional vinegars and to
evaluate the association between active compounds of vinegar and antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Commercial Vinegar, Mass spectrometry, Metabolite profiling, Traditional Vinegar

References

  1. Benzie IF, Strain JJ. 1996. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal. Biochem. 239: 70-76.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Budak HN, Guzel-Seydim ZB. 2010. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of wine vinegars produced by two different techniques. J. Sci. Food Agric. 90: 2021-2026.
    CrossRef
  3. Chen JC, Chen QH, Guo Q, Ruan S, Ruan H, He GQ, Gu Q. 2010. Simultaneous determination of acetoin and tetramethylpyrazine in traditional vinegars by HPLC method. Food Chem. 122:1247-1252.
    CrossRef
  4. Chen PN, Chu SC, Chiou HL, Kuo WH, Chiang CL, Hsieh YS. 2006. Mulberry anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside, exhibited an inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion of a human lung cancer cell line. Cancer Lett. 235: 248-259.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Choung MG, Lim JD. 2012. Antioxidant, anticancer and immune activation of anthocyanin fraction from Rubus coreanus miquel fruits (Bokbunja). Korean J. Med. Crop Sci. 20:259-269.
    CrossRef
  6. Cuevas-Rodriìguez EO, Yousef GG, Garciìa-Saucedo PA, Loìpez-Medina J, Paredes-Loìpez O, Lila MA. 2010. Characterization of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in wild and domesticated Mexican blackberries (Rubus spp.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 58: 7458-7464.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Greco E, Cervellati R, Litterio ML. 2013. Antioxidant capacity and total reducing power of balsamic and traditional balsamic vinegar from Modena and Reggio Emilia by conventional chemical assays. Food Sci. Technol. 48: 114-120.
    CrossRef
  8. Hashimoto M, Obara K, Ozono M, Furuyashiki M, Ikeda T, Suda Y, Shigehisa H. 2012. Separation and characterization of the immunostimulatory components in unpolished rice black vinegar (Kurozu). J. Biosci. Bioeng. 21: 1729-1734.
  9. Hassimotto NMA, Genovese MI, Lajolo FM. 2005. Antioxidant activity of dietary fruits, vegetables, and commercial frozen fruit pulps. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53: 2928-2935.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Hong SM, Moon HS, Lee JH, Lee HI, Jeong JH, Lee MK, Seo KI. 2012. Development of functional vinegar by using cucumbers. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 41: 927-935.
    CrossRef
  11. Jeong CH, Choi GN, Kim JH, Kwak JH, Kang ST, Choi SG, Heo HJ. 2009. In vitro antioxidant properties and phenolic composition of Korean commercial vinegars. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 18: 1258-1262.
  12. Jo DJ, Park E J, Kim GR, Y eo SH, J eong YJ, Kwon JH. 2 012. Quality comparison of commercial cider vinegars by their acidity levels. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 44: 699-703.
  13. Jung ES, Lee S, Lim SH, Ha SH, Liu KH, Lee CH. 2013. Metabolite profiling of the short-term responses of rice leaves (Oryza sativa cv. Ilmi) cultivated under different LED lights and its correlations with antioxidant activities. Plant Sci. 210: 61-69.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Kawaii S, Tomono Y, Katase E, Ogawa K, Yano M. 1999. Quantitation of flavonoid constituents in citrus fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47: 3565-3571.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Kim J, Choi JN, Choi JH, Cha YS, Muthaiya MJ, Lee CH. 2013. Effect of fermented soybean product (Cheonggukjang) intake on metabolic parameters in mice fed a high-fat diet. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 57: 1886-1891.
    CrossRef
  16. Kim SA, Kim SH, Kim IS, Lee D, Dong MS, Na CS, Yoo HH. 2013. Simultaneous determination of bioactive phenolic compounds in the stem extract of Rhus verniciflua stokes by high performance liquid chromatography. Food Chem. 141:3813-3819.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Kim SH, Cho HK, Shin HS. 2012. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of commercial vinegar drinks in Korea. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 21: 1729-1734.
    CrossRef
  18. Kw on S H, J eong E J, L ee GD, Jeong Y J. 2 000. P reparation method of fruit vinegars by two stage fermentation and beverages including vinegar. Food Ind. Nutr. 5: 18-24.
  19. Lee S, Do SG, Kim SY, Kim J, Jin Y, Lee CH. 2012. Mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling and antioxidant activity of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) in different growth stages. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60: 11222-11228.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  20. Lee SW, Yoon SR, Kim GR, Woo SM, Jeong YJ. Yeo SH, et al. 2012. Effect of nuruk and fermentation method on organic acid and volatile compounds in brown rice vinegar. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 21: 453-460.
    CrossRef
  21. Lee SY, Kim HY, Lee S, Lee JM, Muthaiya MJ, Kim BS, et al. 2012. Mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling and bacterial diversity characterization of Korean traditional meju during fermentation. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 22: 1523-1531.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  22. Morales LM, González GA, Casas JA, Troncoso AM. 2001. Multivariate analysis of commercial and laboratory produced sherry wine vinegars: influence of acetification and aging. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 212: 676-682.
    CrossRef
  23. Nielsen MS, Frisvad JC, Nielsen PV. 1998. Protection by fungal starters against growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal spoilers of cheese. Food Microbiol. 42:91-99.
    CrossRef
  24. Ordoudi SA, Mantzouridou F, Daftsiou E, Malo C, Hatzidimitriou E, Nenadis N, Tsimidou MZ. 2014. Pomegranate juice functional constituents after alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation. J. Funct. Foods 8: 161-168.
    CrossRef
  25. Park SY, Chae K S, Son R H, J ung JH, Im Y R, K w on JW. 2012. Quality characteristic and antioxidant activity of bokbunja (Black raspberry) vinegars. Food Eng. Progress 16:340-346.
  26. Qiu J, Ren C, Fan J, Li Z. 2010. Antioxidant activities of aged oat vinegar in vitro and in mouse serum and liver. J. Sci. Food Agric. 90: 1951-1958.
    CrossRef
  27. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, RiceEvans C. 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 26: 1231-1237.
    CrossRef
  28. Seo H, Jeon BY, Yun A, Park DH. 2010. Effect of glasswort (Salicorniai herbacea L.) on microbial community variation in the vinegar-making process and vinegar characteristics. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 20: 1322-1330.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  29. Sugiyama A, Saitoh M, Takahara A. 2003. Acute cardiovascular effects of a new beverage made of wine vinegar and grape juice, assessed using an in vivo rat. Nutr. Res. 23: 1291-1296.
    CrossRef
  30. Tian Q, Giusti MM, Stoner GD, Schwartz SJ. 2006. Characterization of a new anthocyanin in black raspberries (Rubus occidentalis) by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Food Chem. 94: 465-468.
    CrossRef
  31. Yong JJ. 2009. Current trends and future prospects in the Korean vinegar industry. Food Sci. Ind. 42: 52-59.
  32. Yukiko Y, Eriko O. 2006. Antihypertensive effect of quercetin in rats fed with a high-fat high-sucrose diet. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 70: 933-939.
    Pubmed CrossRef