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References

  1. Borchardt MA, Spencer SK, Kieke BA, Lambertini E, Loge FJ. 2012. Viruses in nondisinfected drinking water from municipal wells and community incidence of acute gastrointestinal illness. Environ. Health Perspect. 120: 12721279.
    CrossRef
  2. Gong YW, Oh BY, Kim HY, Lee MY, Kim YH, Go JM, et al. 2008. Molecular epidemiologic investigation of norovirus infections in Incheon city, Korea, from 2005 to 2007. J. Bacteriol. Virol. 38: 249-257.
    CrossRef
  3. Iritani N, Kaida A, Kubo H, Abe N, Goto K, Ogura H, Seto Y. 2010. Molecular epidemiology of noroviruses detected in seasonal outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Osaka city, Japan, from 1996-1997 to 2008-2009. J. Med. Virol. 82: 2097-2105.
    CrossRef
  4. Jung WY, Eom JH, Kim BJ, Yun MH, Ju IS, Kim CS, et al. 2010. Investigation of norovirus occurrence and influence of environmental factors in food service institutions of ChungCheong area. J. Food Hygiene Safety 25: 153-161.
  5. Jung JH, Yoo CH, Koo ES, Kim HM, Na Y, Jheong WH, Jeong YS. 2011. Occurrence of norovirus and other enteric viruses in untreated groundwaters of Korea. J. Water Health 9: 544-555.
    CrossRef
  6. Keswick BH, Satterwhite TK, Johnson PC, DuPont HL, Secor SL, Bitsura JA, et al. 1985. Inactivation of norwalk virus in drinking water by chlorine. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50: 261264.
  7. Kim K, Katayama H, Kitajima M, Tohya Y, Ohgaki S. 2011. Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay combined with ethidium monoazide treatment for RNA viruses and its application to detect viral RNA after heat exposure. Water Sci. Technol. 63: 502-507.
    CrossRef
  8. Kim SH, Cheon DS, Kim JH, Lee DH, Jheong WH, Heo YJ, et al. 2005. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis that occurred during school excursions in Korea were associated with several waterborne strains of norovirus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 48364839.
    CrossRef
  9. Kitajima M, Tohya Y, Matsubara K, Haramoto E, Utagawa E, Katayama H. 2010. Chlorine inactivation of human norovirus, murine norovirus and poliovirus in drinking water. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 51: 119-121.
  10. Koh S J, C ho HG, Ki m BH, Choi B Y. 2011. A n outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus-contaminated groundwater at a waterpark in Korea. J. Korean Med. Sci. 26: 28-32.
    CrossRef
  11. Lee C, Kim SJ. 2008. The genetic diversity of human noroviruses detected in river water in Korea. Water Res. 42:4477-4484.
    CrossRef
  12. Lee G, Lee C. 2008. Molecular detection and characterization of human enteroviruses in Korean surface water. J. Microbiol. 46: 319-324.
    CrossRef
  13. Lee GC, Jheong WH, Jung GS, Oh SA, Kim MJ, Rhee O J, et al. 2012. Detection and molecular characterization of human noroviruses in Korean groundwater between 2008 and 2010. Food Environ. Virol. 4: 115-123.
    CrossRef
  14. Lee GC, Jung GS, Lee CH. 2012. Complete genomic sequence analysis of norovirus isolated from South Korea. Virus Genes 45: 225-236.
    CrossRef
  15. Lee H, Kim M, Lee JE, Lim M, Kim M, Kim JM, et al. 2011. Investigation of norovirus occurrence in groundwater in metropolitan Seoul, Korea. Sci. Total Environ. 409: 2078-2084.
    CrossRef
  16. Lee MY, Cho EJ, Lee JH, Han SH, Park YS. 2010. A survey of Cryptosporidium o ocysts i n water suppli es d uri ng a 1 0year period (2000-2009) in Seoul. Korean J. Parasitol. 48: 219224.
    CrossRef
  17. Lee SG, Jheong WH, Suh CI, Kim SH, Lee JB, Jeong YS, et al. 2011. Nationwide groundwater surveillance of noroviruses in South Korea, 2008. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77: 1466-1474.
    CrossRef
  18. Ministry of Environment. 2010. Waterworks Statistics (2010) from the Ministry of Environment. Available from http://www.waternow.go.kr/main?cmd=AE-9000.
  19. Park S, Jung J, Oh S, Jung H, Oh Y, Cho S, et al. 2012. Characterization of norovirus infections in Seoul, Korea. Microbiol. Immunol. 56: 700-707.
    CrossRef
  20. Shin GA, Sobsey MD. 2008. Inactivation of norovirus by chlorine disinfection of water. Water Res. 42: 4562-4568.
    CrossRef
  21. Straub TM, Bartholomew RA, Valdez CO, Valentine NB, Dohnalkova A, Ozanich RM, et al. 2011. Human norovirus infection of Caco-2 cells grown as a three-dimensional tissue structure. J. Water Health 9: 225-240.
    CrossRef
  22. Straub TM, Höner zu Bentrup K, Orosz-Coghlan P, Dohnalkova A, Mayer BK, Bartholomew RA, et al. 2007. In vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13: 396-403.
    CrossRef
  23. USEPA. 2001. USEPA Manual of Methods for Virology, Chapter 14. Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  24. Zheng DP, Ando T, Fankhauser RL, Beard RS, Glass RI, Monroe SS. 2006. Norovirus classification and proposed strain nomenclature. Virology 346: 312-323.
    CrossRef

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Article

Research article

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2014; 24(4): 556-562

Published online April 28, 2014 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1311.11089

Copyright © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Occurrence and Molecular Characterization of Noroviruses in Korean Surface Water Between 2007 and 2010

Gyu-Cheol Lee 1, Min-jeong Kim 1, Jong Ik Kim 2 and Chan Hee Lee 2*

1Department of Microbiology, Water Quality Research Center, K-water, Daejeon 306-711, Republic of Korea, 2Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Republic of Korea

Received: November 26, 2013; Accepted: February 2, 2014

Abstract

The occurrence of human norovirus (NoV) genogroup I (GI) and genogroup II (GII) strains
was investigated in Korea. Between 2007 and 2010, 265 samples were collected from 89 Korean
water source locations. NoV GI was detected in 4.5% and NoV GII in 1.5%. Samples collected
in winter had the highest occurrence; 9.4% for NoV GI and 6.3% for NoV GII. NoV GI
detection was highest in groundwater, with the next highest in river water and the lowest in
lake water (5.9%, 5.4%, and 1.6%, respectively), and NoV GII was found only in river water.
When three representative Korean basin systems (Han (H)-, Geum/Seom (G/S)-, and
Nakdong (N)-river basins) were compared, both NoV genogroups were high in the G/S-, but
absent in the H- river basin. The most prevalent genotypes within the GI and GII groups were
GI.5 and GII.4, respectively. The NoVs found in surface water were identical to those found in
patients and those found in groundwater. The NoVs appeared to be transmitted from the
patient to the surface water, and then to the groundwater, suggesting a fecal-oral route of
transmission. This is the first nationwide surveillance of NoV in major Korean water sources.

Keywords: fecal-oral route transmission, food poisoning, genotyping, groundwater, norovirus, source water

References

  1. Borchardt MA, Spencer SK, Kieke BA, Lambertini E, Loge FJ. 2012. Viruses in nondisinfected drinking water from municipal wells and community incidence of acute gastrointestinal illness. Environ. Health Perspect. 120: 12721279.
    CrossRef
  2. Gong YW, Oh BY, Kim HY, Lee MY, Kim YH, Go JM, et al. 2008. Molecular epidemiologic investigation of norovirus infections in Incheon city, Korea, from 2005 to 2007. J. Bacteriol. Virol. 38: 249-257.
    CrossRef
  3. Iritani N, Kaida A, Kubo H, Abe N, Goto K, Ogura H, Seto Y. 2010. Molecular epidemiology of noroviruses detected in seasonal outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Osaka city, Japan, from 1996-1997 to 2008-2009. J. Med. Virol. 82: 2097-2105.
    CrossRef
  4. Jung WY, Eom JH, Kim BJ, Yun MH, Ju IS, Kim CS, et al. 2010. Investigation of norovirus occurrence and influence of environmental factors in food service institutions of ChungCheong area. J. Food Hygiene Safety 25: 153-161.
  5. Jung JH, Yoo CH, Koo ES, Kim HM, Na Y, Jheong WH, Jeong YS. 2011. Occurrence of norovirus and other enteric viruses in untreated groundwaters of Korea. J. Water Health 9: 544-555.
    CrossRef
  6. Keswick BH, Satterwhite TK, Johnson PC, DuPont HL, Secor SL, Bitsura JA, et al. 1985. Inactivation of norwalk virus in drinking water by chlorine. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50: 261264.
  7. Kim K, Katayama H, Kitajima M, Tohya Y, Ohgaki S. 2011. Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay combined with ethidium monoazide treatment for RNA viruses and its application to detect viral RNA after heat exposure. Water Sci. Technol. 63: 502-507.
    CrossRef
  8. Kim SH, Cheon DS, Kim JH, Lee DH, Jheong WH, Heo YJ, et al. 2005. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis that occurred during school excursions in Korea were associated with several waterborne strains of norovirus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 48364839.
    CrossRef
  9. Kitajima M, Tohya Y, Matsubara K, Haramoto E, Utagawa E, Katayama H. 2010. Chlorine inactivation of human norovirus, murine norovirus and poliovirus in drinking water. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 51: 119-121.
  10. Koh S J, C ho HG, Ki m BH, Choi B Y. 2011. A n outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus-contaminated groundwater at a waterpark in Korea. J. Korean Med. Sci. 26: 28-32.
    CrossRef
  11. Lee C, Kim SJ. 2008. The genetic diversity of human noroviruses detected in river water in Korea. Water Res. 42:4477-4484.
    CrossRef
  12. Lee G, Lee C. 2008. Molecular detection and characterization of human enteroviruses in Korean surface water. J. Microbiol. 46: 319-324.
    CrossRef
  13. Lee GC, Jheong WH, Jung GS, Oh SA, Kim MJ, Rhee O J, et al. 2012. Detection and molecular characterization of human noroviruses in Korean groundwater between 2008 and 2010. Food Environ. Virol. 4: 115-123.
    CrossRef
  14. Lee GC, Jung GS, Lee CH. 2012. Complete genomic sequence analysis of norovirus isolated from South Korea. Virus Genes 45: 225-236.
    CrossRef
  15. Lee H, Kim M, Lee JE, Lim M, Kim M, Kim JM, et al. 2011. Investigation of norovirus occurrence in groundwater in metropolitan Seoul, Korea. Sci. Total Environ. 409: 2078-2084.
    CrossRef
  16. Lee MY, Cho EJ, Lee JH, Han SH, Park YS. 2010. A survey of Cryptosporidium o ocysts i n water suppli es d uri ng a 1 0year period (2000-2009) in Seoul. Korean J. Parasitol. 48: 219224.
    CrossRef
  17. Lee SG, Jheong WH, Suh CI, Kim SH, Lee JB, Jeong YS, et al. 2011. Nationwide groundwater surveillance of noroviruses in South Korea, 2008. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77: 1466-1474.
    CrossRef
  18. Ministry of Environment. 2010. Waterworks Statistics (2010) from the Ministry of Environment. Available from http://www.waternow.go.kr/main?cmd=AE-9000.
  19. Park S, Jung J, Oh S, Jung H, Oh Y, Cho S, et al. 2012. Characterization of norovirus infections in Seoul, Korea. Microbiol. Immunol. 56: 700-707.
    CrossRef
  20. Shin GA, Sobsey MD. 2008. Inactivation of norovirus by chlorine disinfection of water. Water Res. 42: 4562-4568.
    CrossRef
  21. Straub TM, Bartholomew RA, Valdez CO, Valentine NB, Dohnalkova A, Ozanich RM, et al. 2011. Human norovirus infection of Caco-2 cells grown as a three-dimensional tissue structure. J. Water Health 9: 225-240.
    CrossRef
  22. Straub TM, Höner zu Bentrup K, Orosz-Coghlan P, Dohnalkova A, Mayer BK, Bartholomew RA, et al. 2007. In vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13: 396-403.
    CrossRef
  23. USEPA. 2001. USEPA Manual of Methods for Virology, Chapter 14. Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  24. Zheng DP, Ando T, Fankhauser RL, Beard RS, Glass RI, Monroe SS. 2006. Norovirus classification and proposed strain nomenclature. Virology 346: 312-323.
    CrossRef