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References

  1. Anson ML. 1938. Estimation of pepsin, trypsin, papain and cathepsin with hemoglobin. J. Gen. Physiol. 22: 79-89.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Avery PB, Faull J, Simmonds MSJ. 2004. Effect of different hotoperiods on the growth, infectivity and colonization of Trinidadian strains of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus on the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, using a glass slide bioassay. J. Insect. Sci. 4: 38-48.
    Pubmed
  3. Byrne DN, Bellows TS, Parrella MP. 1990. Whiteflies in agricultural systems. In “hiteflies: Their bionomics, pest status and management” (Gerling D (ed.).), intercept, Andover, UK. pp. 227-261.
  4. Chandler D, Heale JB, Gillespie AT. 1993. Germination of the entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii on scales of the glasshouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 3: 161-164.
    CrossRef
  5. Charnley AK. 1997. Entomopathogenic fungi and their role in pest control, in the Mycota IV environmental and microbial relationships, pp. 185-201. In Wicklow DT, Soderstrom BE (eds.). Springer, Berlin.
  6. Evans HC, Samson RA. 1984. Cordyceps species and their anamorphs pathogenic on ants (Formicidae) in tropical forest ecosystems. 2. The camponotus (Formicinae) complex. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 82: 127-150.
    CrossRef
  7. Fargues J, Goettel MS, Smits N, Ouedraogo A, Rougier M. 1997. Effect of temperature on vegetative growth of Beauveria bassiana isolates from different origins. Mycologia 89: 383-392.
    CrossRef
  8. Faria MR, Wraight SP. 2007. Mycoinsecticides and mycoacaricides a comprehensive list with worldwide coverage and international classification of formulation types. Biological Control 43: 237-256.
    CrossRef
  9. Folin O, Ciocalteau V. 1929. On tyrosine and tryptophane determinations in proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 73: 627-650.
  10. Gottlieb D. 1950. The Physiology of spore germination fungi. Botanical Rev. 16: 229-257.
    CrossRef
  11. Griesch J, Vilcinskas A. 1998. Proteases released by entomopathogenic fungi impair phagocytic activity, attachment and spreading of Plasmatocytes isolated from haemolymph of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 8: 517-531.
  12. Hall RA, Papierok B. 1982. Fungi as biological agents of arthropods of agricultural and medical importance. Parasitology 84: 205-240.
    CrossRef
  13. Hywel-Jones N L. 1995. Cordyceps sphecocephala and a Hymenostilbe sp. infecting wasps and bees in Thailand. Mycol. Res. 99: 154-158.
    CrossRef
  14. Inglis GD, Goettel MS, Butt TM, Strasser H. 2001. Use of hyphomycetous fungi for managing insect pests, pp. 23-69. In Butt TM, Jackson CW, Magan N (eds.). Fungi as biocontrol agents: Progress, problems and potential. CABI International AAFC, Wallingford, United Kingdom.
    CrossRef
  15. Kim JJ, Lee SG, Jee HJ. 2010. Asisa : South Korea, pp. 18-23. In Kabaluk JT, Svircev AM, Goettel MS, Woo SG (eds.). The use and regulation of microbial pesticides in representative jurisdictions worldwide. IOBC Golbal.
  16. Massimiliano F, Jean-Louis L, Federici F. 1998. Chitinolytic enzymes activity of Penicillium janthinellum p9 in bench top bioreactor. J. Ferment. Bioeng. 86: 620-622.
    CrossRef
  17. Miller GL. 1959. Use of dinitrosalicylic acid regent for determination of reducing sugars. Anal. Chem. 31: 426-428
    CrossRef
  18. Oerke EC. 2006. Crop losses to pests. J. Agri. Sci. 144: 31-43.
    CrossRef
  19. Rajiv V, Pranav V, Chhatpar HS. 2003. Statistical optimization of medium components for the production of chitinase, by Alcaligenes xylosoxydans. Enzyme Microbial Technol. 33: 92-96.
    CrossRef
  20. Roberts DR, Hajek AE. 1992. Entomopathogenic fungi as bioinsecticides; in frontiers in industrial mycology, pp. 144-159. In Leatham, GF (ed.). Chapman and Hall, New York.
    Pubmed
  21. Roberts DW, Humber RA. 1981. Entomogenous fungi, 201-236. In Cole GT, Kendrick B (eds.). Biology of Conidial Fungi. Academic Press, New York.
  22. Sato H, Mitsuhashi W, Shimazu M. 1993. Effect of temperature on mycelial growth of three muscardine fungi. Trans. 44th Meet. Kanto Branch Jpn. For. Soc. p. 103-104.
  23. Stephen A, Rehner EB. 2005. A Beauveria phylogeny inferred from nuclear ITS and EF1-α sequences: evidence for cryptic diversification and links to Cordyceps teleomorphs. Myclolgia 97: 84-95.
    CrossRef
  24. Sudhakar P, Nagarajan P. 2011. Production of Chitinase by Solid State Fermentation from Serratia marcescens. Intl. J. Chem. Tech. Res. 3: 590-598.
  25. Thacker JRM. 2002. An introduction to arthropod pest control. Cambridge University Pressed, Cambridge, United Kingdom
  26. Thomas KC, Khachatourians GG, Ingledew WM. 1987. Production and properties of Beauveria bassiana conidia cultivated in submegerd culture. Can. J. Microbiol. 33: 12-20.
    CrossRef
  27. Ulhoa CJ, Peberdy JF. 1991. Regulation of chitinase synthesis in Serratia marcescens. J. Gen. Microbiol. 14: 2163-2169.
    CrossRef
  28. Vega FE, Goettel MS, Blackw M, Chandler D, Jackson MA, Keller S, et al. 2009. Fungal entomopathogens: new insights on their ecology. Fungal Ecolo. 2: 149-159.
    CrossRef
  29. Vey A, Matha V, Dumas C. 2002. Effects of the peptide mycotoxin destruxin E on insect Haemocytes and on dynamics and efficiency of the multicellular immune reaction. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 80: 177-187.
    CrossRef

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Article

Research article

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2014; 24(1): 1-7

Published online January 28, 2014 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1306.06033

Copyright © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

A Technique for the Prevention of Greenhouse Whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) Using the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana M130

Chang-Su Kim 1, Jung-Bok Lee 1, Beam-Soo Kim 1, Young-Ho Nam 1, Kee-Sun Shin 2, Jin-Won Kim 3, Jang-Eok Kim 4 and Gi-Seok Kwon 1*

1Dept. of Bioresource Sciences, Andong National University. Andong 760-749, South Korea. , 2Biological Resource Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon 305-600, South Korea, 3Yecheon Agriculture Technology Center, Yecheon 757-802, South Korea.

Received: June 13, 2013; Accepted: September 3, 2013

Abstract

The possibility of using hyphomycete fungi as suitable biocontrol agents against greenhouse
whitefly has led to the isolation of various insect pathogenic fungi. Among them is Beauveria
bassiana, one of the most studied entomopathogenic fungi. The objective of this study was to
use B. bassiana M130 as an insecticidal agent against the greenhouse whitefly. M130 isolated
from infected insects is known to be a biocontrol agent against greenhouse whitefly.
Phylogenetic classification of M130 was determined according to its morphological features
and 18S rRNA sequence analysis. M130 was identified as B. bassiana M130 and showed
chitinase (342.28 units/ml) and protease (461.70 units/ml) activities, which were involved in
the invasion of the host through the outer cuticle layer, thus killing them. The insecticidal
activity was 55.2% in petri-dish test, 84.6% in pot test, and 45.3% in field test. The results of
this study indicate that B. bassiana has potential as a biological agent for the control of
greenhouse whitefly to replace chemical pesticides.

Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, Biocontrol, Chitinase, Greenhouse whitefly, Protease, Sporulation

References

  1. Anson ML. 1938. Estimation of pepsin, trypsin, papain and cathepsin with hemoglobin. J. Gen. Physiol. 22: 79-89.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Avery PB, Faull J, Simmonds MSJ. 2004. Effect of different hotoperiods on the growth, infectivity and colonization of Trinidadian strains of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus on the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, using a glass slide bioassay. J. Insect. Sci. 4: 38-48.
    Pubmed
  3. Byrne DN, Bellows TS, Parrella MP. 1990. Whiteflies in agricultural systems. In “hiteflies: Their bionomics, pest status and management” (Gerling D (ed.).), intercept, Andover, UK. pp. 227-261.
  4. Chandler D, Heale JB, Gillespie AT. 1993. Germination of the entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii on scales of the glasshouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 3: 161-164.
    CrossRef
  5. Charnley AK. 1997. Entomopathogenic fungi and their role in pest control, in the Mycota IV environmental and microbial relationships, pp. 185-201. In Wicklow DT, Soderstrom BE (eds.). Springer, Berlin.
  6. Evans HC, Samson RA. 1984. Cordyceps species and their anamorphs pathogenic on ants (Formicidae) in tropical forest ecosystems. 2. The camponotus (Formicinae) complex. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 82: 127-150.
    CrossRef
  7. Fargues J, Goettel MS, Smits N, Ouedraogo A, Rougier M. 1997. Effect of temperature on vegetative growth of Beauveria bassiana isolates from different origins. Mycologia 89: 383-392.
    CrossRef
  8. Faria MR, Wraight SP. 2007. Mycoinsecticides and mycoacaricides a comprehensive list with worldwide coverage and international classification of formulation types. Biological Control 43: 237-256.
    CrossRef
  9. Folin O, Ciocalteau V. 1929. On tyrosine and tryptophane determinations in proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 73: 627-650.
  10. Gottlieb D. 1950. The Physiology of spore germination fungi. Botanical Rev. 16: 229-257.
    CrossRef
  11. Griesch J, Vilcinskas A. 1998. Proteases released by entomopathogenic fungi impair phagocytic activity, attachment and spreading of Plasmatocytes isolated from haemolymph of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 8: 517-531.
  12. Hall RA, Papierok B. 1982. Fungi as biological agents of arthropods of agricultural and medical importance. Parasitology 84: 205-240.
    CrossRef
  13. Hywel-Jones N L. 1995. Cordyceps sphecocephala and a Hymenostilbe sp. infecting wasps and bees in Thailand. Mycol. Res. 99: 154-158.
    CrossRef
  14. Inglis GD, Goettel MS, Butt TM, Strasser H. 2001. Use of hyphomycetous fungi for managing insect pests, pp. 23-69. In Butt TM, Jackson CW, Magan N (eds.). Fungi as biocontrol agents: Progress, problems and potential. CABI International AAFC, Wallingford, United Kingdom.
    CrossRef
  15. Kim JJ, Lee SG, Jee HJ. 2010. Asisa : South Korea, pp. 18-23. In Kabaluk JT, Svircev AM, Goettel MS, Woo SG (eds.). The use and regulation of microbial pesticides in representative jurisdictions worldwide. IOBC Golbal.
  16. Massimiliano F, Jean-Louis L, Federici F. 1998. Chitinolytic enzymes activity of Penicillium janthinellum p9 in bench top bioreactor. J. Ferment. Bioeng. 86: 620-622.
    CrossRef
  17. Miller GL. 1959. Use of dinitrosalicylic acid regent for determination of reducing sugars. Anal. Chem. 31: 426-428
    CrossRef
  18. Oerke EC. 2006. Crop losses to pests. J. Agri. Sci. 144: 31-43.
    CrossRef
  19. Rajiv V, Pranav V, Chhatpar HS. 2003. Statistical optimization of medium components for the production of chitinase, by Alcaligenes xylosoxydans. Enzyme Microbial Technol. 33: 92-96.
    CrossRef
  20. Roberts DR, Hajek AE. 1992. Entomopathogenic fungi as bioinsecticides; in frontiers in industrial mycology, pp. 144-159. In Leatham, GF (ed.). Chapman and Hall, New York.
    Pubmed
  21. Roberts DW, Humber RA. 1981. Entomogenous fungi, 201-236. In Cole GT, Kendrick B (eds.). Biology of Conidial Fungi. Academic Press, New York.
  22. Sato H, Mitsuhashi W, Shimazu M. 1993. Effect of temperature on mycelial growth of three muscardine fungi. Trans. 44th Meet. Kanto Branch Jpn. For. Soc. p. 103-104.
  23. Stephen A, Rehner EB. 2005. A Beauveria phylogeny inferred from nuclear ITS and EF1-α sequences: evidence for cryptic diversification and links to Cordyceps teleomorphs. Myclolgia 97: 84-95.
    CrossRef
  24. Sudhakar P, Nagarajan P. 2011. Production of Chitinase by Solid State Fermentation from Serratia marcescens. Intl. J. Chem. Tech. Res. 3: 590-598.
  25. Thacker JRM. 2002. An introduction to arthropod pest control. Cambridge University Pressed, Cambridge, United Kingdom
  26. Thomas KC, Khachatourians GG, Ingledew WM. 1987. Production and properties of Beauveria bassiana conidia cultivated in submegerd culture. Can. J. Microbiol. 33: 12-20.
    CrossRef
  27. Ulhoa CJ, Peberdy JF. 1991. Regulation of chitinase synthesis in Serratia marcescens. J. Gen. Microbiol. 14: 2163-2169.
    CrossRef
  28. Vega FE, Goettel MS, Blackw M, Chandler D, Jackson MA, Keller S, et al. 2009. Fungal entomopathogens: new insights on their ecology. Fungal Ecolo. 2: 149-159.
    CrossRef
  29. Vey A, Matha V, Dumas C. 2002. Effects of the peptide mycotoxin destruxin E on insect Haemocytes and on dynamics and efficiency of the multicellular immune reaction. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 80: 177-187.
    CrossRef