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Research article

References

  1. Betts JW, Kelly SM, Haswell SJ. 2011. Antibacterial effects of theaflavin and synergy with epicatechin against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 35: 421-425.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Bet ts JW, Murphy C, Kelly SM, Haswell SJ. 2012. Minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of theaflavin and synergistic combinations with epicatechin and quercetin against clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. J. Microbiol. Biotech. Food Sci. 1: 1250-1258.
  3. Cho YS, Schiller NL, Oh KH. 2008. Antibacterial effects of green tea polyphenols on clinical isolates of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus. Curr. Microbiol. 57: 542-546.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Evensen NA, Braun PC. 2009. The effects of tea polyphenol on Candida albicans: inhibition of biofilm formation and proteasome inactiviation. Can. J. Microbiol. 55: 1033-1039.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Ferreira C, Silva S, Faria-Oliveira F, Pinho E, Henriques M, Lucas C. 2010. Candida albicans virulence and drug-resistance requires the O-actyltransferase Gup1p. BMC Microbiol. 10:238.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Gordon NC, Wareham DW. 2010. Antimicrobial activity of the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate against clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 36: 129-131.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Hall MJ, Middleton RF, Westmacott D. 1983. The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index as a measurement of synergy. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 11: 427-433.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Hatano T, Tsugawa M, Kusuda M, Taniguchi S, Yoshida T, Shiota A, et al. 2008. Enhancement of antibacterial effects of epigallocatechin gallate, using ascorbic acid. Phytochemistry 69: 3111-3116.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Khan N , Mukht ar H . 2007. T ea p olyphenols f or h ealt h promotion. Life Sci. 81: 519-533.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Kim H, Kawazoe T, Han DW, Matsumara K, Tsutumi S, Hyon SH. 2008. Enhanced wound healing by an epigallocatechinincorporated collagen sponge in diabetic mice. Wound Repair Regen. 16: 714-720.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Lambert JD, Yang CS. 2003. Cancer chemopreventive activity and bioavailability of tea and tea polyphenols. Mutat. Res. 523-524: 201-208.
    CrossRef
  12. Moodsdeen F, Williams JD, Secker A. 1988. Standardization of inoculum size for disc susceptibility testing: a preliminary report of a spectrophotometric method. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 21: 439-443.
    CrossRef
  13. Neyestani TR, Khalaji N, Gharavi A. 2007. Black teas may have selective synergistic or antagonistic effects on certain antibiotics against Streptococcus pyogenes in vitro. J. Nutr. Environ. Med. 16: 258-266.
    CrossRef
  14. Okubo S, Toda M, Hara Y, Shimamura T. 1991. Antifungal and fungicidal activities of tea extract and catechin against Trichophyton. Nihon Saikingaku Zasshi 46: 509-514.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Park BJ, Park JC, Taguchi H, Fukushima K, Hyon SH, Takatori K. 2006. Antifungal susceptibility of epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCg) on clinical isolates of pathogenic yeasts. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 347: 401-405.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Pugliese A, Torre D, Baccino FM, Di Perri G, Cantamessa Gerbaudo L, Saini A, Vidotto V. 2000. Candida albicans and HIV-1 infection. Cell Biochem. Funct. 18: 235-241.
    CrossRef
  17. Sims CR, Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Rex JH. 2005. Invasive Candidiasis in immunocompromised hospitalized patients. Arch. Med. Res. 36: 660-671.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Sitheeque MA, Panagoda GJ, Yau J, Amarakoon AM, Udagama UR, Samaranayake LP. 2009. Antifungal activity of b lack tea polyphenols (cat echins and t heaflavins) against Candida species. Chemotherapy 55: 189-196.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  19. White TC, Holleman S, Dy F, Mirels LF, Stevens DA. 2002. Resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates of Candida albicans. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 1704-1713.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  20. Yoda Y, Hu ZQ, Zhao WH, Shimamura T. 2004. Different susceptibilies of Staphylococcus and Gram-negative rods to epigallocatechin gallate. J. Infect. Chemother. 10: 55-58.
    Pubmed CrossRef

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Article

Research article

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2013; 23(9): 1322-1326

Published online September 28, 2013 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1303.03010

Copyright © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Antifungal Synergy of Theaflavin and Epicatechin Combinations Against Candida albicans

Jonathan W. Betts 1*, David W. Wareham 1, Stephen J. Haswell 2 and Stephen M. Kelly 2

1Antimicrobial Research Group, Centre for Immunology and Infectious Disease, Blizard Institute, Queen Mary, University of London, London, E1 2AT, UK, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX, UK

Received: March 5, 2013; Accepted: May 10, 2013

Abstract

New antifungal agents are required to compensate for the increase in resistance to standard
antifungal agents of Candida albicans, which is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen
that causes minor infections in many individuals but very serious infections in those who are
immune-compromised. In this study, combinations of theaflavin and epicatechin are
investigated as potential antifungal agents and also to establish whether antifungal synergy
exists between these two readily accessible and cost-effective polyphenols isolated from black
and green tea. The results of disc diffusion assays showed stronger antibacterial activity of
theaflavin:epicatechin combinations against C. albicans NCTC 3255 and NCTC 3179, than that
of theaflavin alone. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 1,024 μg/ml with theaflavin and
128-256 μg/ml with theaflavin:epicatechin combinations were found. The fractional inhibitory
concentration indexes were calculated, and the synergy between theaflavin and epicatechin
against both isolates of C. albicans was confirmed. Theaflavin:epicatechin combinations show
real potential for future use as a treatment for infections caused by C. albicans.

Keywords: Antifungal, Theaflavin, Epicatechin, Synergy, Candida albicans

References

  1. Betts JW, Kelly SM, Haswell SJ. 2011. Antibacterial effects of theaflavin and synergy with epicatechin against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 35: 421-425.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Bet ts JW, Murphy C, Kelly SM, Haswell SJ. 2012. Minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of theaflavin and synergistic combinations with epicatechin and quercetin against clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. J. Microbiol. Biotech. Food Sci. 1: 1250-1258.
  3. Cho YS, Schiller NL, Oh KH. 2008. Antibacterial effects of green tea polyphenols on clinical isolates of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus. Curr. Microbiol. 57: 542-546.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Evensen NA, Braun PC. 2009. The effects of tea polyphenol on Candida albicans: inhibition of biofilm formation and proteasome inactiviation. Can. J. Microbiol. 55: 1033-1039.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Ferreira C, Silva S, Faria-Oliveira F, Pinho E, Henriques M, Lucas C. 2010. Candida albicans virulence and drug-resistance requires the O-actyltransferase Gup1p. BMC Microbiol. 10:238.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Gordon NC, Wareham DW. 2010. Antimicrobial activity of the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate against clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 36: 129-131.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Hall MJ, Middleton RF, Westmacott D. 1983. The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index as a measurement of synergy. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 11: 427-433.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Hatano T, Tsugawa M, Kusuda M, Taniguchi S, Yoshida T, Shiota A, et al. 2008. Enhancement of antibacterial effects of epigallocatechin gallate, using ascorbic acid. Phytochemistry 69: 3111-3116.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Khan N , Mukht ar H . 2007. T ea p olyphenols f or h ealt h promotion. Life Sci. 81: 519-533.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Kim H, Kawazoe T, Han DW, Matsumara K, Tsutumi S, Hyon SH. 2008. Enhanced wound healing by an epigallocatechinincorporated collagen sponge in diabetic mice. Wound Repair Regen. 16: 714-720.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Lambert JD, Yang CS. 2003. Cancer chemopreventive activity and bioavailability of tea and tea polyphenols. Mutat. Res. 523-524: 201-208.
    CrossRef
  12. Moodsdeen F, Williams JD, Secker A. 1988. Standardization of inoculum size for disc susceptibility testing: a preliminary report of a spectrophotometric method. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 21: 439-443.
    CrossRef
  13. Neyestani TR, Khalaji N, Gharavi A. 2007. Black teas may have selective synergistic or antagonistic effects on certain antibiotics against Streptococcus pyogenes in vitro. J. Nutr. Environ. Med. 16: 258-266.
    CrossRef
  14. Okubo S, Toda M, Hara Y, Shimamura T. 1991. Antifungal and fungicidal activities of tea extract and catechin against Trichophyton. Nihon Saikingaku Zasshi 46: 509-514.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Park BJ, Park JC, Taguchi H, Fukushima K, Hyon SH, Takatori K. 2006. Antifungal susceptibility of epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCg) on clinical isolates of pathogenic yeasts. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 347: 401-405.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Pugliese A, Torre D, Baccino FM, Di Perri G, Cantamessa Gerbaudo L, Saini A, Vidotto V. 2000. Candida albicans and HIV-1 infection. Cell Biochem. Funct. 18: 235-241.
    CrossRef
  17. Sims CR, Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Rex JH. 2005. Invasive Candidiasis in immunocompromised hospitalized patients. Arch. Med. Res. 36: 660-671.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Sitheeque MA, Panagoda GJ, Yau J, Amarakoon AM, Udagama UR, Samaranayake LP. 2009. Antifungal activity of b lack tea polyphenols (cat echins and t heaflavins) against Candida species. Chemotherapy 55: 189-196.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  19. White TC, Holleman S, Dy F, Mirels LF, Stevens DA. 2002. Resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates of Candida albicans. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 1704-1713.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  20. Yoda Y, Hu ZQ, Zhao WH, Shimamura T. 2004. Different susceptibilies of Staphylococcus and Gram-negative rods to epigallocatechin gallate. J. Infect. Chemother. 10: 55-58.
    Pubmed CrossRef