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References

  1. Basiacik, K. S. and N. Aksoz. 2004. Optimization of carbonnitrogen ratio for production of gibberellic acid by Pseudomonas sp. Pol. J. Microbiol. 53: 117-120.
  2. Bottini, R., F. Cassan, and P. Piccoli. 2004. Gibberellin production by bacteria and its involvement in plant growth promotion and yield increase. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 65: 497-503.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Borrow, A., E. G. Brown, E. G. Jefferys, R. H. Kessell, E. C. Lloyd, P. B. Lloyd, A. Rothwell, B. Rothwell, and J. C. Swait. 1964. The kinetics of metabolism of Gibberella fujikuroi in stirred culture. Can. J. Microbiol. 10: 407-444.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Carattoli, A., N. Romano, P. Ballario, G. Morelli, and G. Macino. 1991. The Neurospora crassa carotenoid biosynthetic gene (Albino-3) reveals highly conserved regions among prenyltransferases. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 5854-5859.
    Pubmed
  5. Choi, Y. E. and W. B. Shim. 2008. Identification of genes associated with fumonisin biosynthesis in Fusarium verticillioides via proteomics and quantitative real-time PCR. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 18: 648-657.
    Pubmed
  6. Chui, L., T. Chiu, J. Kakulphimp, and G. J. Tyrrell. 2008. A comparison of three real-time PCR assays for the confirmation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae following detection of N. gonorrhoeae using Roche COBAS AMPLICOR. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 14:473-479.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Hedden, P. and A. L. Phillips. 2000. Gibberellin metabolism:New insights revealed by the genes. Trends Plant Sci. 5: 523530.
    CrossRef
  8. Hedden, P., A. L. Phillips, M. C. Rojas, E. Carrera, and B. Tudzynski. 2002. Gibberellin biosynthesis in plants and fungi:A case of convergent evolution? J. Plant Growth Regul. 20:319-331.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Kawaide, H. 2006. Biochemical and molecular analyses of gibberellin biosynthesis in fungi. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 70: 583-590.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Lee, S. H., S. H. Kang, Y. H. Park, D. M. Min, and Y. M. Kim. 2006. Quantitative analysis of two genetically modified maize lines by real-time PCR. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 16: 205-211.
  11. Li, J., W. Sima, B. Ouyang, T. Wang, K. Ziaf, Z. Luo, et al. 2012. Tomato SlDREB gene restricts leaf expansion and internode elongation by downregulating key genes for gibberellin biosynthesis. J. Exp. Bot. 63: 6407-6420.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  12. Livak, K. J. and T. D. Schmittgen. 2001. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2−ΔΔCT method. Methods 25: 402-408.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Macmillan, J. 2002. Occurrence of gibberellins in vascular plants, fungi, and bacteria. J. Plant Growth Regul. 20: 387-442.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Malonek, S., M. C. Rojas, P. Hedden, P. Gaskin, P. Hopkin, and B. Tudzynski. 2005. Functional characterization of two cytochrome p450 monooxygenase genes, p450-1 and p450-4, of the gibberellic acid gene cluster in Fusarium proliferatum (Gibberella fujikuroi MP-D). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:1462-1472.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  15. Malonek, S., M. C. Rojas, P. Hedden, P. Hopkin, and B. Tudzynski. 2005. Restoration of gibberellins production in Fusarium proliferatum by functional complementation of enzymatic blocks. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 6014-6025.
    Pubmed PMC CrossRef
  16. Mander, L. N. 2003. Twenty years of gibberellin research. Nat. Prod. Rep. 20: 49-69.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Mende, K., V. Homann, and B. Tudzynski. 1997. The geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene of Gibberella fujikuroi:Isolation and expression. Mol. Gen. Genet. 255: 96-105.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. O’Donnell, K. and E. Cigelnik. 1997. Two divergent intragenomic rDNA ITS2 types within a monophyletic lineage of the fungus Fusarium are nonorthologous. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 7: 103-116.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  19. Rim, S. O., J. H. Lee, W. Y. Choi, S. K. Hwang, S. J. Suh, I. J. Lee, et al. 2005. Fusarium prolifertum KGL0401 as a new gibberellin-producing fungus. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 15:809-814.
  20. Rim, S. O., J. H. Lee, I. J. Lee, I. K. Rhee, and J. G. Kim. 2007. Optimization of gibberellin production by Fusarium proliferatum KGL0401 and its involvement in waito-c rice growth. J. Life Sci. 17: 120-124.
    CrossRef
  21. Simpson, D. A., S. Feency, C. Boyle, and A. W. Stitt. 2000. Retinal VEGF mRNA measured by SYBR green I fluorescence:A versatile approach to quantitative PCR. Molec. Vis. 6: 178183.
  22. Tsavkelova, E. A., C. Bomke, A. I. Netrusov, J. Weiner, and B. Tudzynski. 2008. Production of gibberellic acids by an orchidassociated Fusarium proliferatum strain. Fungal Genet. Biol. 45: 1393-1403.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  23. Tudzynski, B. 1999. Biosynthesis of gibberellins in Gibberella fujikuroi biomolecular aspects. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 52:298-310.
    CrossRef
  24. Tudzynski, B. 2005. Gibberellin biosynthesis in fungi: Genes, enzymes, evolution, and impact on biotechnology. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 66: 597-611.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  25. Tudzynski, B. and K. Holter. 1998. Gibberellin biosynthetic pathway in Gibberella fujikuroi: Evidence for a gene cluster. Fungal Genet. Biol. 25: 157-170.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  26. Tudzynski, B., H. Kawaide, and Y. Kamiya. 1998. Gibberellin biosynthesis in Gibberella fujikuroi: Cloning and characterization of the copalyl diphosphate synthase gene. Curr. Genet. 34:234-240.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  27. Tudzynski, B., M. Mihlan, M. P. Rojas, P. Gaskin, and P. Hedden. 2003. Characterization of the final two genes of the gibberellins biosynthesis gene cluster of Gibberella fujikuroi. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 28635-28643.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  28. Yamaguchi, S. 2008. Gibberellin metabolism and its regulation. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 59: 225-251.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  29. Yamaguchi, S., T. P. Sun, H. Kawaide, and Y. Kamiya. 1998. The GA2 locus of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes ent-kaurene synthase of gibberellins biosynthesis. Plant Physiol. 116: 203213.
    CrossRef
  30. Woitek, S., S. E. Unkles, J. R. Kinghorn, and B. Tudzynski. 1997. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase gene of Gibberella fujikuroi: Isolation and characterization. Curr. Genet. 31: 38-47.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  31. You, Y. H., H. Yoon, S. M. Kang, J. R. Woo, Y. S. Choo, I. J. Lee, et al. 2012. Cadophora malorum Cs-8-1 as a new fungal strain producing gibberellins isolated from Calystegia soldanella. J. Basic Microbiol. 52: 1-5.
  32. You, Y., H., H. Yoon, S. M. Kang, J. H. Shin, Y. S. Choo, I. J. Lee, et al. 2012. Fungal diversity and plant growth promotion of endophytic fungi from six halophytes in Suncheon Bay. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 22: 1549-1556.
    Pubmed CrossRef

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Article

Research article

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2013; 23(5): 623-629

Published online May 25, 2013 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1212.12029

Copyright © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Characterization of Gibberellin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster from Fusarium proliferatum

Soon-Ok Rim 1, Young-Hyun You 1, Hyeokjun Yoon 1, Ye-Eun Kim 1, Jin-Hyung Lee 1, Myung Suk Kang 2, Changmu Kim 2, Young-Bae Seu 1 and Jong-Guk Kim 1*

1School of Life Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea, 2National Institute of Biological Resource, Incheon 404-708, Korea

Received: December 11, 2012; Accepted: January 22, 2013

Abstract

Gibberellins (GAs) are a group of phytohormones that
control many developmental processes in higher plants.
We report the cloning and expression pattern of gibberellin
biosynthesis genes from a new GA-producing fungus,
Fusarium proliferatum (strain KGL0401). These genes
sequences are deposited in the National Center for
Biotechnology Information (NCBI) under accession numbers
EF119831, EF119832, DQ313173, DQ313174, DQ313175,
DQ313176, and DQ313177. The expression level of these
genes was maximal at a 0.5 M : 0.17 M carbon : nitrogen
ratio, and minimal at a 0.25 M : 0.47 M carbon : nitrogen
ratio.

Keywords: Fusarium proliferatum KGL0401, Gibberellin, GA biosynthesis genes

References

  1. Basiacik, K. S. and N. Aksoz. 2004. Optimization of carbonnitrogen ratio for production of gibberellic acid by Pseudomonas sp. Pol. J. Microbiol. 53: 117-120.
  2. Bottini, R., F. Cassan, and P. Piccoli. 2004. Gibberellin production by bacteria and its involvement in plant growth promotion and yield increase. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 65: 497-503.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Borrow, A., E. G. Brown, E. G. Jefferys, R. H. Kessell, E. C. Lloyd, P. B. Lloyd, A. Rothwell, B. Rothwell, and J. C. Swait. 1964. The kinetics of metabolism of Gibberella fujikuroi in stirred culture. Can. J. Microbiol. 10: 407-444.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Carattoli, A., N. Romano, P. Ballario, G. Morelli, and G. Macino. 1991. The Neurospora crassa carotenoid biosynthetic gene (Albino-3) reveals highly conserved regions among prenyltransferases. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 5854-5859.
    Pubmed
  5. Choi, Y. E. and W. B. Shim. 2008. Identification of genes associated with fumonisin biosynthesis in Fusarium verticillioides via proteomics and quantitative real-time PCR. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 18: 648-657.
    Pubmed
  6. Chui, L., T. Chiu, J. Kakulphimp, and G. J. Tyrrell. 2008. A comparison of three real-time PCR assays for the confirmation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae following detection of N. gonorrhoeae using Roche COBAS AMPLICOR. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 14:473-479.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Hedden, P. and A. L. Phillips. 2000. Gibberellin metabolism:New insights revealed by the genes. Trends Plant Sci. 5: 523530.
    CrossRef
  8. Hedden, P., A. L. Phillips, M. C. Rojas, E. Carrera, and B. Tudzynski. 2002. Gibberellin biosynthesis in plants and fungi:A case of convergent evolution? J. Plant Growth Regul. 20:319-331.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Kawaide, H. 2006. Biochemical and molecular analyses of gibberellin biosynthesis in fungi. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 70: 583-590.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Lee, S. H., S. H. Kang, Y. H. Park, D. M. Min, and Y. M. Kim. 2006. Quantitative analysis of two genetically modified maize lines by real-time PCR. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 16: 205-211.
  11. Li, J., W. Sima, B. Ouyang, T. Wang, K. Ziaf, Z. Luo, et al. 2012. Tomato SlDREB gene restricts leaf expansion and internode elongation by downregulating key genes for gibberellin biosynthesis. J. Exp. Bot. 63: 6407-6420.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  12. Livak, K. J. and T. D. Schmittgen. 2001. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2−ΔΔCT method. Methods 25: 402-408.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Macmillan, J. 2002. Occurrence of gibberellins in vascular plants, fungi, and bacteria. J. Plant Growth Regul. 20: 387-442.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Malonek, S., M. C. Rojas, P. Hedden, P. Gaskin, P. Hopkin, and B. Tudzynski. 2005. Functional characterization of two cytochrome p450 monooxygenase genes, p450-1 and p450-4, of the gibberellic acid gene cluster in Fusarium proliferatum (Gibberella fujikuroi MP-D). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:1462-1472.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  15. Malonek, S., M. C. Rojas, P. Hedden, P. Hopkin, and B. Tudzynski. 2005. Restoration of gibberellins production in Fusarium proliferatum by functional complementation of enzymatic blocks. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 6014-6025.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  16. Mander, L. N. 2003. Twenty years of gibberellin research. Nat. Prod. Rep. 20: 49-69.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Mende, K., V. Homann, and B. Tudzynski. 1997. The geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene of Gibberella fujikuroi:Isolation and expression. Mol. Gen. Genet. 255: 96-105.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. O’Donnell, K. and E. Cigelnik. 1997. Two divergent intragenomic rDNA ITS2 types within a monophyletic lineage of the fungus Fusarium are nonorthologous. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 7: 103-116.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  19. Rim, S. O., J. H. Lee, W. Y. Choi, S. K. Hwang, S. J. Suh, I. J. Lee, et al. 2005. Fusarium prolifertum KGL0401 as a new gibberellin-producing fungus. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 15:809-814.
  20. Rim, S. O., J. H. Lee, I. J. Lee, I. K. Rhee, and J. G. Kim. 2007. Optimization of gibberellin production by Fusarium proliferatum KGL0401 and its involvement in waito-c rice growth. J. Life Sci. 17: 120-124.
    CrossRef
  21. Simpson, D. A., S. Feency, C. Boyle, and A. W. Stitt. 2000. Retinal VEGF mRNA measured by SYBR green I fluorescence:A versatile approach to quantitative PCR. Molec. Vis. 6: 178183.
  22. Tsavkelova, E. A., C. Bomke, A. I. Netrusov, J. Weiner, and B. Tudzynski. 2008. Production of gibberellic acids by an orchidassociated Fusarium proliferatum strain. Fungal Genet. Biol. 45: 1393-1403.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  23. Tudzynski, B. 1999. Biosynthesis of gibberellins in Gibberella fujikuroi biomolecular aspects. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 52:298-310.
    CrossRef
  24. Tudzynski, B. 2005. Gibberellin biosynthesis in fungi: Genes, enzymes, evolution, and impact on biotechnology. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 66: 597-611.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  25. Tudzynski, B. and K. Holter. 1998. Gibberellin biosynthetic pathway in Gibberella fujikuroi: Evidence for a gene cluster. Fungal Genet. Biol. 25: 157-170.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  26. Tudzynski, B., H. Kawaide, and Y. Kamiya. 1998. Gibberellin biosynthesis in Gibberella fujikuroi: Cloning and characterization of the copalyl diphosphate synthase gene. Curr. Genet. 34:234-240.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  27. Tudzynski, B., M. Mihlan, M. P. Rojas, P. Gaskin, and P. Hedden. 2003. Characterization of the final two genes of the gibberellins biosynthesis gene cluster of Gibberella fujikuroi. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 28635-28643.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  28. Yamaguchi, S. 2008. Gibberellin metabolism and its regulation. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 59: 225-251.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  29. Yamaguchi, S., T. P. Sun, H. Kawaide, and Y. Kamiya. 1998. The GA2 locus of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes ent-kaurene synthase of gibberellins biosynthesis. Plant Physiol. 116: 203213.
    CrossRef
  30. Woitek, S., S. E. Unkles, J. R. Kinghorn, and B. Tudzynski. 1997. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase gene of Gibberella fujikuroi: Isolation and characterization. Curr. Genet. 31: 38-47.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  31. You, Y. H., H. Yoon, S. M. Kang, J. R. Woo, Y. S. Choo, I. J. Lee, et al. 2012. Cadophora malorum Cs-8-1 as a new fungal strain producing gibberellins isolated from Calystegia soldanella. J. Basic Microbiol. 52: 1-5.
  32. You, Y., H., H. Yoon, S. M. Kang, J. H. Shin, Y. S. Choo, I. J. Lee, et al. 2012. Fungal diversity and plant growth promotion of endophytic fungi from six halophytes in Suncheon Bay. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 22: 1549-1556.
    Pubmed CrossRef