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Research article

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2011; 21(9): 893-902

Published online September 28, 2011 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1103.03012

Copyright © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Salinity Stress Resistance Offered by Endophytic Fungal Interaction Between Penicillium minioluteum LHL09 and Glycine max. L

Abdul Latif Khan 1, 2, Muhammad Hamayun 3, Nadeem Ahmad 4, Javid Hussain 2, 5, Sang-Mo Kang 1, Yoon-Ha Kim 1, Muhammad Adnan 2, Dong-Sheng Tang 6, Muhammad Waqas 1, Ramalingam Radhakrishnan 1, Young-Hyun Hwang 1 and In-Jung Lee 1*

1School of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 701-702, Korea, 2Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan, 3Department of Botany, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan, 4Department of Botany, Islamia College University, Peshawar, Pakistan, 5Department of Biological Sciences and Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Nizwa, Nizwa, Oman, 6Key Laboratory of Agri-biodiversity and Pest Management, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China

Received: March 7, 2011; Accepted: June 2, 2011

Abstract

Endophytic fungi are little known for their role in
gibberellins (GAs) synthesis and abiotic stress resistance
in crop plants. We isolated 10 endophytes from the roots
of field-grown soybean and screened their culture filtrates
(CF) on the GAs biosynthesis mutant rice line - Waito-C. CF
bioassay showed that endophyte GMH-1B significantly
promoted the growth of Waito-C compared with controls.
GMH-1B was identified as Penicillium minioluteum LHL09
on the basis of ITS regions rDNA sequence homology and
phylogenetic analyses. GC/MS-SIM analysis of CF of P.
minioluteum revealed the presence of bioactive GA4 and
GA7. In endophyte-soybean plant interaction, P. minioluteum
association significantly promoted growth characteristics
(shoot length, shoot fresh and dry biomasses, chlorophyll
content, and leaf area) and nitrogen assimilation, with and
without sodium chloride (NaCl)-induced salinity (70 and
140 mM) stress, as compared with control. Field-emission
scanning electron microcopy showed active colonization
of endophyte with host plants before and after stress
treatments. In response to salinity stress, low endogenous
abscisic acid and high salicylic acid accumulation in
endophyte-associated plants elucidated the stress mitigation
by P. minioluteum. The endophytic fungal symbiosis of
P. minioluteum also increased the daidzein and genistein
contents in the soybean as compared with control plants,
under salt stress. Thus, P. minioluteum ameliorated the
adverse effects of abiotic salinity stress and rescued soybean
plant growth by influencing biosynthesis of the plant’s
hormones and flavonoids.

Keywords: Penicillium minioluteum, soybean plant growth, phytohormones, salt stress, daidzein, genistein