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Research article

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2011; 21(1): 5-13

Published online January 28, 2011 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1008.08018

Copyright © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Chemotaxonomy of Trichoderma spp. Using Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolite Profiling

Daejung Kang 1, Jiyoung Kim 1, Jung Nam Choi 1, Kwang-Hyeon Liu 2 and Choong Hwan Lee 1*

1Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kon-Kuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea, 2Department of Pharmacology and PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735, Korea

Received: August 18, 2010; Accepted: September 28, 2010

Abstract

In this study, seven Trichoderma species (33 strains) were
classified using secondary metabolite profile-based
chemotaxonomy. Secondary metabolites were analyzed by
liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem
mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) and multivariate
statistical methods. T. longibrachiatum and T. virens were
independently clustered based on both internal transcribed
spacer (ITS) sequence and secondary metabolite analyses.
T. harzianum formed three subclusters in the ITS-based
phylogenetic tree and two subclusters in the metabolitebased
dendrogram. In contrast, T. koningii and T. atroviride
strains were mixed in one cluster in the phylogenetic tree,
whereas T. koningii was grouped in a different subcluster
from T. atroviride and T. hamatum in the chemotaxonomic
tree. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA)
was applied to determine which metabolites were responsible
for the clustering patterns observed for the different
Trichoderma strains. The metabolites were hetelidic
acid, sorbicillinol, trichodermanone C, giocladic acid,
bisorbicillinol, and three unidentified compounds in the
comparison of T. virens and T. longibrachiatum; harzianic
acid, demethylharzianic acid, homoharzianic acid, and three
unidentified compounds in T. harzianum I and II; and
koninginin B, E, and D, and six unidentified compounds
in T. koningii and T. atroviride. The results of this study
demonstrate that secondary metabolite profiling-based
chemotaxonomy has distinct advantages relative to ITSbased
classification, since it identified new Trichoderma
clusters that were not found using the latter approach.

Keywords: Trichoderma, chemotaxonomy, mass spectrometry, multivariate analysis, metabolomics