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Fig. 1.

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Fig. 1. Overview of the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Life Cycle. HBV enters human liver hepatocytes through the Na+- taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) receptor and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) co-receptor. After entering the cells, the viral particle undergoes uncoating on the nuclear membrane. Its genetic material (rcDNA) is then transported into the nucleus, where rcDNA is converted to cccDNA, serving as the template for HBV mRNA transcription. The Viral mRNAs are subsequently transported to the cytoplasm for protein translation. Viral polymerase interacts with 5’ epsilon structure of pgRNA , promoting nucleocapsid assembly. Within the core particles, the (-) strand DNA is generated by reverse transcription, followed by pgRNA degradation and the synthesis of the (+) strand DNA, resulting in rcDNA formation. Mature core particles have two potential fates: they can be enveloped to form virions for release, or they can be transported to the nucleus to produce additional cccDNA. Additionally, double-stranded linear DNA, which is an abnormal replication product of pgRNA, is the preferred template for integration into the host chromosomal DNA.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2024;34:233~239 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2309.09013
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