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Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Candidate anti-orthopoxvirus agents with defined targets.

Stage of life cycle Candidate agent Mechanism of action Stage of development Ref
Entry Vaccinia immune globulin Neutralizing viral particles Approved for vaccinia infection [40, 41]
Early transcription Adenosine N1-oxide Nigericin
Aurintricarboxylic acid
Inhibiting viral early gene transcription Preclinical research [42]
[43]
[44]
DNA synthesis Cidofovir Nucleoside analogs Available through IND* protocol for smallpox [37]
Brincidofovir Approved for smallpox / Clinical trial phase 3 for dsDNA viruses including MPOX [45]
N-Methanocarbathymidine
Aphidicolin
Cytosine arabinoside
Phosphonoacetic acid
4'-thioIDU
5-substituted deoxyuridine analogs
Preclinical research [46]
[47]
[48]
[48]
[49]
[50]
Small peptide aptamers Binding to virus replication complex Preclinical research [51, 52]
Hydroxyurea Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor Preclinical research [53]
Late transcription IBT
Methisazone
Ethacrynic acid
Alpha-lipoic acid
Inhibiting viral late gene transcription Preclinical research [54, 55]
[57]
[58]
[58]
Assembly Rifampicin Interfering formation of viral membrane Preclinical research [59, 60]
Mitoxantrone DNA ligase inhibitor Preclinical research [61, 62]
Ofloxacin
Novobiocin
Topoisomerase inhibitor Preclinical research [63]
[64, 65]
Maturation TTP-6171 Cysteine proteinase inhibitor Preclinical research [66]
Secondary envelopment Tecovirimat VP37 inhibitor Approved for smallpox / Clinical trial phase 3 for MPOX [68]
IMCBH Preventing intracellular virion wrapping Preclinical research [70, 71]
Egress Imatinib Inhibiting cellular
Abl-family tyrosine kinases
Preclinical research [72-74]
Terameprocol Inhibiting actin tail formation Preclinical research [75]
Nitroxoline Inhibiting the signal cascade that modulates virus replication Preclinical research [76-78]

*Investigational new drug (IND)

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2023;33:981~991 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2306.06033
© J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.