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Fig. 4.

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Fig. 4. Effects of the coffee pulp–ampicillin (CP-AMP) combination on bacterial cell morphology. The E. coli E48 strain was treated for 3 h at 37°C with CP or AMP alone, or the CP–AMP combination. SEM images at 15,000× and 25,000× magnification show: (A) the control; (B) CP alone at 25 mg/ml; (C) AMP alone at 50 mg/mL; and (D) the CP–AMP combination treatment (CP 0.2 mg/ml + AMP 0.1 mg/ml). Cell damage is indicated by the arrow.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2023;33:1179~1188
© J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.