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Fig. 3.

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Fig. 3. The effects of the coffee pulp–ampicillin combination on biofilm formation. The E. coli E48 strain was treated with CP alone (25, 50, 100 mg/ml), AMP alone (50 mg/ml), or the CP-AMP combination (CP 0.2 mg/ml+AMP 0.1 mg/ml) for the biofilm formation assay and the preformed biofilm biomass and viability assay. Biofilm formation (A) and preformed biofilm (B) were quantified using crystal violet staining. Preformed biofilm viability (C) was quantified with the MTT assay. *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2023;33:1179~1188
© J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.