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Fig. 1.

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Fig. 1. Effects of the coffee pulp–ampicillin (CP–AMP) combination against the multidrug-resistant E. coli E48 strain. The time-kill kinetics of the CP extract, AMP, and the CP–AMP combination were investigated. Bacterial samples were collected at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 h to determine the number of viable bacteria. The dashed bars represent the bactericidal level.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2023;33:1179~1188
© J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.