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Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Current technologies for detecting E.coli Shiga toxins.

No. Type Feature Target analyte Detection limit Ref.
1 Culture CDC, CT-SMAC agar, CHROMagar O157 E. coli O157:H7 Not reported [7]
2 FDA, L-EMB agar, SHIBAM agar Non-O157 STEC Not reported [11]
3 USDA, modified rainbow agar, sheep blood agar Non-O157 STEC Not reported [11]
4 ELISA Premier EHEC, Sandwich ELISA All STEC 106 CFU/1 ml of bacterial culture, 7 pg/1 ml of Stx1, 15 pg/1 ml of Stx2 [22, 110, 111]
5 ProSpecT STEC, Sandwich ELISA All STEC 106 CFU/1 ml of bacterial culture [22, 111]
6 Ridascreen Verotoxin, Sandwich ELISA All STEC 107 CFU/1 ml of bacterial culture [22, 111]
7 Reversed passive latex agglutination VTEC-Screen Seiken Stx1 and Stx2 25 ng/1 ml of both toxins [112]
8 Nanoparticle-based platform Gb3-conjugated gold nanoparticle with silver enhancement Stx1 1 μg/1 ml of Stx1 [26]
9 Gb3-conjugated magnetic nanoparticle with MALDITOF Stx1 330 pg/1 ml of Stx1 [28]
10 DNA amplification Real-time PCR, SYBR Green assay, stx1, stx2, uidA E. coli O157:H7 Not reported [36]
11 RapidFinder STEC Detection, Real-time PCR, TaqMan assay, stx1, stx2, eae EHEC 8-280 CFU/25 g of meat and vegetable before enrichment [42]
12 Real-time PCR, TaqMan assay, stx1, stx2, eaeO26, eaeO111 Non-O157 STEC (O26, O111) 1-10 CFU/1 g of beef and bovine feces before enrichment [30]
13 Real-time PCR, TaqMan assay, stx1, stx2, eae, wzx EHEC 1-2 CFU/25 g of ground beef before enrichment [31]
14 Eiken VTEC Detection, LAMP, stx1, stx2 All STEC 0.3 log10CFU/1 g of different foods before enrichment [47]
15 Mulpiflex PCR E. coli O157 non-O157 STEC STEC virulence genes/Salmonella 5-27 CFU/325 g of E. coli O157, 9-36 CFU/325 g of non-O157 STEC [113]
16 Mulpiflex PCR Bona fide Big Six STEC 4.5 CFU/25 ml of apple juice [114]
17 LAMP multiplex detection E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., S. aureus, and Cochlodinium polykrikoides (C. polykrikoides) 1.7 × 102 CFU/1 ml of milk [115]
18 LAMP, multiplex detection Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in food 3.0 × 101 CFU/sample of Gramnegative bacteria, 3.0 × 102 CFU/sample of Gram-positive bacteria [116]
19 Vero cell cytotoxicity assay 2D culture, MTT assay, infection time: 24 h All STEC 1 ng/1 ml of Stx1, 10 ng/1 ml of Stx2 [111]
20 2D culture, LDH release assay, infection time: 6 h All STEC 107-108 CFU/1 ml of bacterial culture, 1,000 ng/1 ml of Stx [59]
21 3D culture, LDH release assay, infection time: 6 h All STEC 107 CFU/1 ml of bacterial culture, 32 ng/1 ml of Stx [59]
22 Lateral flow Immunoassay Integrated with competitive and sandwich models AFM1 E. coli O157:H7 50 pg/ml 1.58 × 104 CFU∙/ml [64]
23 AuNP-based CdTe QD-based Stx2 25 ng ml−1 5 ng ml−1 [68]
24 Size-based by immunomagnetic separation E. coli O157 103 CFU/ml [74]
25 Multiplex E. coli O157:H7 S. Typhimurium 2.6 × 103 CFU/1 g of lettuce [117]
26 Sol-gel-derived silica ink-coated test strips E. coli [118]
27 Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards and glass fibers E. coli [119]
28 Optical Method Fluorometer Stx2 110 pM [75]
29 Fluorometer-based multiple application FITC 0.42 nM [76]
30 Luminescence detection E. coli O157:H7 Not reported [77]
31 SPRi Stx1 and Stx2 10~50 pg/ml [87]
32 μIMZI E. coli O157:H7 10 CFU/ml [92]
33 Electrochemical method Screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) and paramagnetic beads E. coli O26 0.90-1.88 CFU in 25 ml [95]
34 Sandwich-type bacteriophage-based biosensor STEC serogroups 10-102 CFUg-1 or ml-1 [96]
35 Integrated gold microelectrodes (IDEs) on silicon chips stx1 gene 100 aM [97]
36 Aptamer functionalized BC-Ni nanorods platform STEC strain E. coli O157:H7 10 CFU [98]
37 Impedimetric DNA dual biosensor for label-free assay E. coli (yaiO gene) and virulent f17 fimbriae DNA 0.8 fM and 1.0 fM [99]
38 Combined method asPCR with LFIA Twenty-four strains of STEC Not reported [101]
39 LAMP with LFIA E. coli O157:H7 10 CFU/g [102]
40 RPA coupled with a dipstick genomic DNA of E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli bacteria 1 fg and 4.4 CFU/ml [105]
41 RPA with LFIA E. coli O157:H7 1 fg/(4-5) CFU/ml [106]
42 Smartphone-integrated detection Sandwich ELISA combined E. coli O157:H7 10 CFU/ml [107]
43 MP-based PCR product separation E. coli O157:H7 10 CFU/ml [108]
44 LAMP reaction E. coli O157:H7 10 copies/μl [109]
45 Other assays (paper-based) Paper-based portable culture device E. coli 10 CFU/ml [120]
46 AuNP-decorated PDMS paper chip E. coli 57 CFU/ml [121]
47 Litmus paper E. coli 2 × 105 – 4 × 104 CFU/ml [122]
48 Other assays (microfluidic) Color-producing compounds deposited on μPAD L. monocytogenes, E. coli, S. enteric 10 CFU/ml [123]
49 Multichannel paper chip E. coli 10 CFU/ml [124]
50 AuNP-coated biochips E. coli 50 CFU/ml [125]
51 Dieletrophoretic microfluidic chip E. coli 300 CFU/ml [126]
52 Nanoporous alumina membrane E. coli 100 CFU/ml [127]
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2023;33:559~573 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2212.12025
© J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.