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Fig. 2.

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Fig. 2. C-di-GMP synthesis mechanism and functional properties during BP biofilm formation. The synthesis and breakdown of cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) are regulated by two enzymes, diguanylate cyclase (DGC) and phosphodiesterase (PDE), each containing a conserved GGDEF or EAL/HD-GYP domain respectively. Two guanosine-5’-triphosphate (GTP) molecules are utilized by DGC during the condensation reaction that results in the formation of c-di-GMP, which favors biofilm formation by enhancing the transition from free-living planktonic cells to sessile cells. PDE catalyzes the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP into two guanosine monophosphate (GMP) molecules. Both enzymes are influenced by environmental signals such as temperature and concentration of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) that ultimately determine the level of c-di-GMP. The phenotypic characteristics of the cells such as the presence of flagella, pili, adhesin, and exopolysaccharide may be regulated by these enzymes at the transcriptional and post-translation levels through determining the level of c-di-GMP [41].
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2023;33:15~27 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2207.07032
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