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Table. 3.

Table. 3.

Biological activities of violacein.

Biological Properties References
Anti-microbial activity Violacein from Janinthobacterium sp. inhibits Multi-Drug Resistant bacteria P. aeruginosa and S. marcescens. [42]
Violacein against S. aureus ATCC 29213 and S. aureus, ATCC 43300 showed four times greater activity as compared to vancomycin. [13]
Violacein integrated silk fabric against S. aureus caused bacterial population reduction of 81.25%. [40]
Violacein loaded in poly-(D, L-lactide-co-glycoside) nanoparticles showed three times more antibacterial activity as compared to free violacein against S. aureus ATCC 25923. [38]
Violacein from cutaneous bacteria of amphibians showed antifungal activities against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans. [47]
Antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea, and Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum glycines, Colletotrichum orbiculare, Gibberella zeae, Phytophthora capsica, and Verticillium dahlia, etc. [48] [41]
Inhibitory effects against viruses like Simian rotavirus SA11, HSV-1, and Poliovirus type 2. [49]
Anti-malarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium chabaudi in mice. [50]
Anti-parasitic activity Anti-trypanosomal activities against Trypanosoma cruzi. [130]
Mild cytotoxic activity against Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. [51]
Antinematodal activity against C. elegans. [53]
Anti-leishmanial activity against Leishmania amazonensis. [52]
Violacein administered orally for 4 days at a dose of 40 mg/kg showed immunosuppressive activity against delayed-type hypersensitivity caused by sheep red blood cells. [55]
Immunomodulatory activity Modulation of central and peripheral antinociceptive activities. [55]
Violacein against HeLa (cervix cell carcinoma) cell lines rendered them sensitive to cisplatin (an anti-tumor drug). [66]
Anti-cancerous activity Violacein encapsulated with Pectin-Gelatin showed anti-cancerous activity on HTC-116 colon cancer cell lines. [67]
Violacein downregulates CXCL12/CXCR4 interaction in breast cancer cell lines MCF7. [131]
Nephroprotective activity Violacein and silver nanoparticles making a dyad system, to structurally bind and inhibit TFAM at the interface of the TFAM-DNA complex against cancer proliferation. [68]
Violacein showed nephroprotective activity against heavy metals and gentamicin through the antioxidant property. [69]
Anti-diarrhoeal and ulcer-protective property Violacein showed ulcer-protective characteristics against ethanol-induced ulceration, with anti-ulcer activity peaking at 40 mg/kg. Violacein (40 mg/kg) inhibited castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats by 87.84 percent. [70]
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2021;31:1465~1480 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2107.07045
© J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.