JMB

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Table. 2.

Table. 2.

Recombinant producers of violacein.

Recombinant strains Metabolic engineering Titer Reference
Citrobacter freundii Heterologous expression of pCom10vio plasmid in C. freundii. 4.13 g/liter [20]
Corynebacterium glutamicum Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21850 strain employed for violacein production in a 3L bioreactor. 5.436 g/l [22]
E. coli VioABCE cluster from C. violaceum was expressed in E. coli dVioL under an inducible ara C system.
Metabolic engineering of serine, non-oxidative pentose phosphate, chorismite, and tryptophan biosynthesis pathways and integration of VioD from J. lividum produced violacein.
0.710 g/l [102]
Up-regulation of endogenous tryptophan pathway by overexpression of trpEfbr/trpD,knockoutofcompetitivegenes(trpR/tnaA/pheA)anddownstreamintegrationofviolaceinbiosyntheticpathwayin E. coli B2/Ped +pVio resulted in violacein production. 1.75 g/l [21]
Introduction of vioABCDE gene cluster in B8/TRPH1 strain engineered to accumulate tryptophan from glucose showed that VioE is a rate-limiting enzyme and its increased concentration gave off an increased amount of violacein. 4.45 g/l [104]
Introduction of expanded sRNA expression vector pColA-Sm R harboring genome-scale sRNA library in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and knocking down of ytfR gene by sRNA gave good violacein production. 0.695 g/l [105]
Yarrowia lipolytica Violacein production by the integration vioABCDE gene cluster in DNA assembly named YaliBrick in Y. lipolytica. - [23]
De novo synthesis of violacein in Y. lipolytica by eliminating ratelimiting step. 0.366 g/l [24]
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2021;31:1465~1480 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2107.07045
© J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.