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Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Natural producers of violacein.

Strain Origin/source Characteristics Yield References
C. violaceum Soil and water Facultative anaerobe 0.43 g/l [79, 125]
Janthinobacterium sp. B9-8 Xinjiang, China Low-temperature sewage(5–10°C), 98.6% similarity with that of J. lividum. 130 mg/l [85]
J. lividum Glacier and on the skin of amphibians Psychrotrophic, kills Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, biofilm development, antibacterial properties against E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and the S. aureus MRSA, antifungal against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei, synthesis of antimicrobial polyamide fabrics, immediate dying. 1.828 g/l [84] [77] [126]
J. lividum XT1 Xinjiang, China Violacein production in the presence of sucrose, casein vitamins, and minerals at > 20°C. 3.5 g/l [84]
Duganella B2 Xingjiang, China Plackett–Burman and Box–Behnken More violacein production than C. violaceum under optimum conditions. 1.62 g/l [19]
Duganella violaceinigra str. NI28 Near Ulsan, South Korea Relative of Duganella violaceinigra YIM 31327 produced (45-folds more violacein than D. violaceinigra YIM 31327 effective against multidrugresistant Staphylococcus aureus. 18.9mg/l [43] [12]
Collimonas CT The coast of Trøndelag, Norway Closely related to J. lividum and Duganella sp. B2, horizontal gene transfers maximum pigment production at 20–25°C, antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 9341). [7]
Collimonas fungivorans gen. Hyphae of several soil fungi Most closely related genera are Herbaspirillum and Janthinobacterium. Highest growth rates at 20–30°C. [91] [7]
Massilia sp. BS-1 Soil 93% homology with J. lividum, utilizes tryptophan and L-histidine for violacein production. 0.446 g/ 10 ml [94]
Massilia sp. NR 4 Topsoil under nutmeg tree, Torreya nucifera in Korean national monument, Bijarim Forest Aerobic, non-spore-forming rod-shaped, Massilia colonization on the seed coat, radicle, or roots protect against infection by soil-borne plant pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum at a plant developmental stage. [8][129]
Pseudoalteromonas sp. (Strains 520P1,710P1) Coast of Japan Research provided a deep insight into the phenomenon of quorum sensing in these strains. [95][98]
Pseudoalteromonas sp. (TC14) Mediterranean A novel strain exhibited quorum sensing. [9]
Antarctic Iodobacter Antarctic territory Non-pathogenic genus, psychrotolerant, a member of the family Oxalobacteraceae. 1.1 mg/l [10]
Antarctic bacterial isolate Highest yield at 20°C in Tryptic Soy Broth medium supplemented with 3.6 g/l glucose, double yield in a 5 L bioreactor. 77 mg/l [66]
Psychrotrophic bacterium RT102 Antiproliferative activity, growth inhibition, and cell death of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, and Bacillus subtilis. 3.7g/l [128]
Psychrotrophic bacterium P117 and P102 Freshwater, Lake Winnipeg P117 is related to Massilia violaceinigra, which produces a higher concentration of deoxyviolacein and P102 is related to Janinthobacterium. produces a higher concentration of violacein. [129]
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2021;31:1465~1480 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2107.07045
© J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.