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Fig. 1.

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Fig. 1. Gut microbial metabolites in osteal signaling pathway. (A) SCFAs promote bone homeostasis. SCFAs can inhibit RANKL signaling, upregulate TGFβ-BMP-Wnt signaling, and promote the absorption of calcium by lowering the pH in the intestinal tract. (B) TMAO promotes bone homeostasis. TMAO promotes proliferation of osteoblasts by upregulating BMP-Wnt signaling and improving insulin sensitivity. Abbreviations: SCFA, short-chain fatty acid; HDAC, histone deacetylase; DC, dendritic cell; TGF-β, transforming growth factor-β; FZD, frizzled; LRP5, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5; TCFs, T cell factors; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide-1; PTH, parathyroid hormone; PC, phosphatidyl choline; TMA, trimethylamine; TMAO, trimethylamine N-oxide; OC, osteocalcin.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2021;31:765~774 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2104.04016
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