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Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Methods to overcome antibiotic resistance in biofilms.

Strategy Mechanism Methods or agents Target Microorganisms
Physical destruction Physical destruction of biofilm structure UTMD [51]Surgical debridement plus antibiotic [52, 53] S. epidermidisP. aeruginos
Target the EPS Inhibit EPS production or secretion cdGMP and cdAMP [56]Small molecules such as glucosyltransferase inhibitor and pilicides [57, 58] S. aureusP. aeruginosaS. epidermidisStreptococcus
Degrade EPS Glucanohydrolases and dispersin B [59, 60]Esp serine protease [61]DNase I [62-64] S. aureusP. aeruginosaS. epidermidisStreptococcus
Block quorum sensing Inhibit quorum sensing to prevent biofilm formation Blocking QS signal molecule production [66]Neutralizing signal molecules by chemicals, antibodies, or specific enzymes [41, 67]Blocking the receptors or inhibit the signaling pathway [42, 43] P. aeruginosaB. Bosea sp.B. brevisA. caviae Sch3
Recombinant phages Use phage to lyse bacteria Recombinant ‘phage cocktail’ [76]Nature strains of polyvalent bacteriophages [77, 78] Staphylococcus strainsS. epidermidisS. aureusK. pneumoniae
Others Use chemical or physical principles Nanoparticles:TiO2 [82] ; Silver [83] S. aureus, S. epidermidis,P. aeruginosa, E. coli,and C. abicans;
Electric currents [84-88] E. coli, P. aeruginosa,S. Typhimurium.

Promising methods to overcome biofilm antibiotic resistance, with the underlying mechanism of action also shown.

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2021;31:1~7
© J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.