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Table. 6.

Table. 6.

Immunomodulatory mechanism of Bifidobacterium spp.

References Strain(s) Outcomes and results Discussion
Sheikhi et al. [32] L. acidophilus, B. lactis • IL-10, TGF-β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α increased compared to control in both probiotic groups• IL-10, TGF-β were relatively higher in B. lactis group• IFN-γ, TNF-α appeared to be relatively lower in the B. lactis group B. lactis activated not only Th, but also Treg cells. It can be used as a treatment alternative for UC patients
Silva et al. [33] B. longum, B. breve, B. pseudolongum, B. bifidum • Bacterial growth of all strains was inhibited• Decrease in IL-8 was greater with live B. longum• IL-6 decreased in all live bacteria B. longum showed antibacterial activity, and B. bifidum and B. bifidum were effective in producing cytokines and extracellular matrix
Vieira et al. [34] B. longum • TNF-α and IL-6, which were increased after K. pneumoniae infection in bronchoalveolar fluid, decreased• Increased IL-10 with live B. longum• Increased ROS production with greater effect of live bacteria Live B. longum probiotics can activate the TLR signal pathway to generate ROS, regulate the inflammatory response, and help the lungs quickly restore constancy

IL, interleukin; ROS, reactive oxygen species; TGF, transforming growth factor; Th, T-helper cells; Treg, T-regulatory cells; TLR, toll-like receptor; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α; UC, ulcerative colitis.

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2020;30:1793~1800 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2007.07046
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