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Table. 4.

Table. 4.

Pro-inflammatory effects of Bifidobacterium spp.

References Strain(s) Outcomes and results Discussion
Lee et al. [26] L. paracasei ssp. paracasei, B. animalis spp. lactis, L. plantarum • TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12, and IgG1 increased L. paracasei, B. lactis, and heated L. plantarum can play key roles in enhancing the immunity of immunosuppressed patients
Han et al. [27] B. pseudocatenulatum, B. longum, B. breve • External antigen ovalbumin increased• NO release increased• IL-1β and TNF-α increased• Macrophages were larger and rougher Bifidobacteria activated macrophages and enhanced APC cell functions through MHC class molecules, and increased the secretion of macrophage intermediates
Nakamura et al. [28] B. bifidum • pIgR mRNA increased• Expression of IL-1α and IL-1β increased Expression of intestinal pIgR increased site-specifically. This can be explained by the action of epithelial cells through TLRs

APC, antigen presenting cell; IL-1β, interleukin 1 beta; MHC, major histocompatibility complex; NO, nitric oxide; pIgR, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor; TLRs, toll-like receptors; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α.

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2020;30:1793~1800
© J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.