eISSN 1738-8872
pISSN 1017-7825

Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Adaptive laboratory evolutions of industrial microorganisms categorized by product and feedstock.

Product Species Condition Span Reference
Organic acid and amino acid

Chirally pure lactates E. coli SZ194, ∆ldhA::ldhL-FRT Glucose minimal medium containing betaine up to 120days [20]
Carboxylic acid E. coli MG1655, ∆fadDpoxBackA-pta: cmR MOPS minimal medium with octanoic acid 714 h [21]
D-lactic acid E. coli W strain ∆pflBptaadhE,frdABCDaldA,CscR LB or NBS medium About 56 days [22]
L-lactic acid E. coli SZ470, ∆adhEldhA::ldhL LB-xylose medium 3 months [23]
D-lactate E. coli KO11 (ATCC 55124) 10% Glucose LB medium About 12 days [24]
L-lactic acid E. coli W3110, ∆focA-pflB::FRTfrdBCadhE::FRT ackA::FRTldhA::(ldhL-frt) GlcM9 medium 12 days [8]
Succinic acid E. coli K12 ∆ptsGmanX E. coli K12 ∆ptsI LB medium 48h [25]
Succinic acid S. cerevisiae CEN.PK113-5D, ∆sdh3ser3ser33 gradually reducing glycine nd* [26]
Muconic acid S. cerevisiae BY4741, ∆aro3aro4::PGPD-aro4k229l Ty2δ::PGPD-ECL_01944optzwf1[115] Geneticin and 4FP (anti-metabolite) containing medium 1325 h [27]
L-ornithin C. glutamicum ATCC 13032, ΔargFΔproBΔspeE gradually reducing ornithine 70 days [28]


Ethanol S. cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D Sucrose-limited chemostat 90 generations [30]
Ethanol S. cerevisiae BY4741 expressing xylose isomerase from B. cenocepacia YNB medium containing xylose 40 passages [31]
1-Butanol E. coli JCL166, ΔadhEΔldhAΔfrdBC Conversion from LB medium to M9 medium nd* [32]
Isobutanol E. coli JCL16 NTG-created mutant GlcM9 medium with norvaline (valine analog) nd* [33]


Lipid C. reinhardtii cc4324 derivatives Gradually reducing NH4Cl (nitrogen) 84 days [34]
Lipid R. opacus PD630 Gradually increasing phenol concentration 40 passages [35]


Carotenoids D. salina(UTEX LB #200) Blue light stress 16 cycles (each cycle was conducted for 5 days) [36]
Lycopene E. coli MG1655 with plasmid (lycopene synthase gene, mutator module and sensor) went through the FREP 432 h [37]
β-carotene S. cerevisiae GSY1136 strain [115] Hydrogen peroxide stress about 40 days [38]

Antibacterial & antifungal agent

Antibacterial compounds against MRSA S. clavuligerus 27064 Co-culture with methicillin resistant S. aureus(MRSA) N315 About 90 days [39]
Multiple antifungal agents S. variabilis AFP2 Co-culture with C. neoformans 14116 30 days [40]


Dihydroxyacetone E. coli strain C, ΔldhA::FRT, ΔadhE::FRT, ΔackA::FRT NBS or AM1 medium with Glucose, gradually reducing NaOAc >2,000 generations [41]
Improved methyltransferases (Mtases)activity E. coli JW3582, ΔcysE [117] M9 medium supplemented with methionine and substrates of Mtases nd* [42]
Recombinant protein C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 7-times sorting by measuring fluorescence in 2 weeks [43]

Utilization of alternative carbon source

Lactose S. cerevisiae NCYC869-A3/T1[118] Semisynthetic lactose (SSlactose) medium, >120 generations [44]
Xylose S. cerevisiae RWB 217 derived from CEN.PK102-3A [119] Synthetic medium with Glucose and xylose 1,000h [45]

Utilization of alternative carbon source

Xylose S. cerevisiae BY4741, Δgre3, URA::GPDp-xylA*3-CYC1t-TEFpXKS1-CYC1t, Leu:: GPDp-xylA*3-RPM1t-TEFp- tal1-CYC1t YDL236w:: His Xylose medium 24 days [46]
Xylose and mEthanol C. glutamicum ATCC 13032, derivatives CGXII medium with xylose and mEthanol 206 days [47]
Glucose G. oxydans 621H recombinant (mgdh::Gm) Glucose medium 50 days [9]
Glucose G. oxydans strain evolved to use Glucose [9] Glucose medium 25 days [48]
Lactate or glycerol E. coli MG1655 M9 minimal Medium with lactate or glycerol >600 generations [49, 50]
1,2-propanediol E. coli MG1655, GC strain [120] M9 minimal medium with L-1,2- propanediol 700 generations [51]

*nd-no data

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2020;30:793~803
© J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.