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Table. 1.

Table. 1.

The results of clinical trial between probiotics and disease.

Disease Used probiotics Study summary Reference
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) L. acidophilus B. animalis subsp. lactis L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus S. thermophilus Clinical trials to adults (avg. 39) were tested for 12 days with three different groups: Bio-yogurt (n=131), Commercial-yogurt (N=118), and No-yogurt (N=120). The percentages of participants suffering AAD during this study are 6.9% (Bio-yogurt), 11.0% (Commercial-yogurt), and 14.2% (No-yogurt), respectively. [15]
L. acidophilus L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus S. thermophilus 202 elderly (avg. 70) were volunteered for clinical trials (105 Yogurt group and 97 Control group) during 8 days. This clinical trial study showed that the percentage of participants suffering AAD is 12.4% in Yogurt group and 23.7% in Control group, respectively. [29]
L. rhamnosus GG (LGG) 188 children (avg. 4) were participated in the 10-day clinical trial with or without ingestion of LGG in capsule form. Comparing to 25 children in control group (N=95), only 7 children were suffered AAD in LGG group with higher stool consistency score and lower stool number per day. [16]
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) L. acidophilus La-5 B. animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 176 IBD patients (86 probiotic yogurt group and 90 placebo group with general yogurt) and 84 healthy people as a control group with probiotic yogurt were volunteered for clinical trials during 8 weeks. The results showed that the numbers of Bifidobacterium (B) and Lactobacillus (L) increased in both probiotic yogurt group (B, 43.8%; L, 36.1%) and control group (B, 11.0%; L, 16.2%), comparing to placebo group (B, -4.3%; L, 3.3%). [18]
B. longum With fructooligosaccharide/inulin mixture for synbiotics 16 IBD patients (avg. 43) were tested for 4 weeks with two different groups: Synbiotic group (n=8) and Placebo group (n=8). mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1α) were significantly reduced and subsequent biopsies in the test group confirmed reduction of inflammation. []
Crohn's disease (CD) L. rhamnosus NCIMB 30174 L. plantarum NCIMB 30173 L. acidophilus NCIMB 30175 E. faecium NCIMB 30176 62 CD patients were volunteered for 4 weeks with probiotic group (N=33) and placebo group (N=29). However, there was no significant statistical different between two groups and inflammation reduction was not observed. [17]
Crohn's disease (CD) continued VSL#3 (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, S. thermophilus) 119 CD patients were tested for 1 year with VSL# group (N=59) and placebo group (N=60). VSL#3 group was divided into three subgroups: a screening phage (Day 0), a double-blind treatment phase (Day 1-90), and an open-label treatment phase (Day 91-365). While late VSL#3 group (open-label treatment phase, Day 91-365) showed 42.1% severe recurrence, early VSL#3 group (Day 1-365) showed only 20.5% severe recurrence. All CD patients receiving VSL#3 reduced mucosal inflammatory cytokine levels, comparing to placebo group. [23]
Colorectal cancer (CRC) L. paracasei Leu. mesenteroides L. plantarum P. pentosaceus with prebiotic mixture (betaglucan, inulin, pectin, and resistant starch) for synbiotics 54 CRC patients (avg. 64) were tested for three days before surgery with three groups: group A (synbiotics), B (prebiotics) and C (placebo with bowel preparation). Quantitative Real-Time PCR showed that L. paracasei was detected with the highest number in group A (53.8-fold), comparing to group B (2.5-fold) and C. However, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, P. pentosaceus, and L. plantarum was not detected in group B and C, which it was only detected with high number in group A. [27]
B. longum L. acidophilus E. faecalis 60 CRC patients were tested for 12 days with probiotics group (N=30) and placebo group (N=30). The incidence of diarrhea was significantly lower in probiotics group (26.67%, 8/30) than in placebo group (53.33%, 16/30). [30]
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2019;29:1335~1340 https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1906.06064
© J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.