2013 ; 23(1):
|Author||Yeun Hong, Hee-Seok Yang, Hae-Choon Chang, Hae-Yeong Kim|
|Affiliation||Institute of Life Sciences and Resources and Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701, Korea|
|Title||Comparison of Bacterial Community Changes in Fermenting Kimchi at Two Different Temperatures Using a Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Analysis|
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.2013 ; 23(1):
|Abstract||A polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel
electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technique followed by
sequencing of the 16S rDNA fragments eluted from the
bands of interest on denaturing gradient gels was used to
monitor changes in the bacterial microflora of two
commercial kimchi, salted cabbage, and ingredient mix
samples during 30 days of fermentation at 4oC and 10oC.
Leuconostoc (Lc.) was the dominant lactic acid bacteria
(LAB) over Lactobacillus (Lb.) species at 4oC. Weissella
confusa was detected in the ingredient mix and also in kimchi
samples throughout fermentation in both samples at 4oC
and 10oC. Lc. gelidum was detected as the dominant LAB
at 4oC in both samples. The temperature affected the LAB
profile of kimchi by varing the pH, which was primarily
caused by the temperature-dependent competition among
different LAB species in kimchi. At 4oC, the sample variations
in pH and titratable acidity were more conspicuous owing
to the delayed growth of LAB. Temperature affected only
initial decreases in pH and initial increases in viable cell
counts, but affected both the initial increases and final
values of titratable acidity. The initial microflora in the
kimchi sample was probably determined by the microflora
of the ingredient mix, not by that of the salted cabbage.
The microbial distributions in the samples used in this
study resembled across the different kimchi samples and
the different fermentation temperatures as the numbers
of LAB increased and titratable acidity decreased.|
|Keywords||bacterial community, PCR-DGGE, kimchi, lactic acid bacteria|
Altschul, S. F., T. L. Madden, A. A. Schaffer, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, W. Miller, and D. J. Lipman. 1997. Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST; a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res. 25: 3389-3402.
Björkroth, K. J., P. Vandamme, and H. J. Korkeala. 1998. Identification and characterization of Leuconostoc carnosum, associated with production and spoilage of vacuum-packaged, sliced, cooked ham. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 3313-3319.
Björkroth, K. J., R. Geisen, U. Schillinger, N. Weiss, P. De Vos, W. H. Holzapfel, et al. 2000. Characterization of Leuconostoc gasicomitatum sp. nov., associated with spoiled raw tomatomarinated broiler meat strips packaged under modified-atmosphere conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 3764-3772.
Chang, H. W., K. H. Kim, Y. D. Nam, S. W. Roh, M. S. Kim, C. O. Jeon, and J. W. Bae. 2008. Analysis of yeast and archaeal population dynamics in kimchi using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 126: 159-166.
Cho, J. H., D. Y. Lee, C. N. Yang, J. I. Jeon, J. H. Kim, and H. U. Han. 2006. Microbial population dynamics of kimchi, a fermented cabbage product. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 257: 262267.
Chung, H. K., K. M. Yeo, and M. H. Kim. 1996. Kinetic modeling for quality prediction during kimchi fermentation. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 1: 41-45.
Hamasaki, Y., M. Ayaki, H. Fuchu, M. Sugiyama, and H. Morita. 2003. Behavior of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria isolated from spoiling cooked meat products. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 3668-3671.
Jung, J. Y., S. H. Lee, H. J. Lee, H. Y. Seo, W. S. Park, and C. O. Jeon. 2012. Effects of Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter cultures on microbial communities and metabolites during kimchi fermentation. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 153: 378-387.
Jung, H. J., Y. Hong, H. S. Yang, H. C. Chang, and H. Y. Kim. 2012. Distribution of lactic acid bacteria in garlic (Allium sativum) and green onion (Allium fistulosum) using SDS-PAGE whole cell protein pattern comparison and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. 2012. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 21 [In Press].
Kim, M. and J. Chun. 2005. Bacterial community structure in kimchi, a Korean fermented vegetable food, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 103: 91-96.
Kim, M. H., S. T. Shim, Y. S. Kim, and K. H. Kyung. 2002. Diversity of leuconostocs on garlic surface, an extreme environment. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 12: 497-502.
Kim, S. Y., K. S. Yoo, J. E. Kim, J. S. Kim, J. Y. Jung, Q. Jin, H. J. Eom, and N. S. Han. 2010. Diversity analysis of lactic acid bacteria in Korean rice wines by culture-independent method using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 19: 749-755.
Kim, T. W., J. H. Lee, S. E. Kim, M. H. Park, H. C. Chang, and H. Y. Kim. 2009. Analysis of microbial communities in doenjang, a Korean fermented soybean paste, using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 131: 265-271.
Kim, T. W., J. Y. Lee, H. S. Song, J. H. Park, G. E. Ji, and H. Y. Kim. 2004. Isolation and identification of Weissella kimchii from green onion by cell protein pattern analysis. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 14: 105-109.
Kim, T. W., J. Y. Lee, S. H. Jung, Y. M. Kim, J. S. Jo, D. K. Chung, et al. 2002. Identification and distribution of predominant lactic acid bacteria in kimchi, a Korean traditional fermented food. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 12: 635-642.
Ku, K. H., K. O. Kang, and W. J. Kim. 1988. Some quality changes during fermentation of kimchi. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 20: 476-482.
Lee, J. S., G. Y. Heo, J. W. Lee, Y. J. Oh, J. A. Park, Y. H. Park, et al. 2005. Analysis of kimchi microflora using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 102: 143150.
Lee, M. J. and J. H. Lee. 2009. Detection of pediococci in kimchi using pediococci selective medium. Korean J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 37: 238-242.
Lee, S. H. and S. D. Kim. 1988. Effect of starters on fermentation of kimchi. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr. 17: 342-347.
Lee, Y. H. and I. W. Yang. 1970. Studies on the packaging and preservation of kimchi. J. Korean Agric. Chem. Soc. 13: 207218.
Mheen, T. I. and T. W. Kwon. 1984. Effect of temperature and salt concentration on kimchi fermentation. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 16: 443-450.
Miller, K. M., T. J. Ming, A. D. Schulze, and R. E. Withler. 1999. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE): A rapid and sensitive technique to screen nucleotide sequence variation in populations. Biotechniques 27: 1016-1018.
Park, J. A., G. Y. Heo, J. S. Lee, Y. J. Oh, B. Y. Kim, T. I. Mheen, et al. 2003. Change of microbial communities in kimchi fermentation at low temperature. Korean J. Microbiol. 39: 4550.
Park, J. M., J. H. Shin, D. W. Lee, J. C. Song, H. J. Suh, U. J. Chang, and J. M. Kim. 2010. Identification of the lactic acid bacteria in kimchi according to initial and over-ripened fermentation using PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 19: 541-546.
Park, W. P., K. D. Park, J. H. Kim, Y. B. Cho, and M. J. Lee. 2000. Effect of washing conditions in salted Chinese cabbage on the quality of kimchi. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 29:30-34.
Shaw, B. G. and C. D. Harding. 1989. Leuconostoc gelidum sp. nov. and Leuconostoc carnosum sp. nov. from chill-stored meats. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 39: 217-223.
Shin, D. H., M. S. Kim, J. S. Han, D. K. Lim, and W. S. Park. 1996. Changes of chemical composition and microflora in commercial kimchi. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 28: 137-145.
Sneath, P. H. A. and R. R. Sokal. 1973. Numerical Taxonomy:The Principles and Practice of Numerical Classification. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, California, USA.
So, M. H. and Y. S. Lee. 1997. Influences of cultural temperature on growth rates of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi. Korean J. Food Nutr. 10: 110-116.
So, M. H., Y. S. Lee, H. S. Kim, E. J. Cho, and M. J. Yea. 1996. An influence of salt concentrations on growth rates of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi. Korean J. Food Nutr. 9: 341-347.
Song, B. K., M. M. Clyde, R. Wickneswari, and M. N. Normah. 2000. Genetic relatedness among Lansium domesticum accessions using RAPD markers. Ann. Bot. 86: 299-307.