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Research articleMolecular and Cellular Microbiology (MCM) | Molecular Genetics, Omics, and Systems Biology
Identification of the Phenalamide Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Myxococcus stipitatus DSM 14675
1Department of Biotechnology, Hoseo University, Asan 31499, Republic of Korea, 2Bio Center, Gyeonggi Institute of Science & Technology Promotion, Suwon 16229, Republic of KoreaReceived: March 11, 2016; Accepted: June 10, 2016
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2016; 26(9): 1636-1642
Published September 28, 2016
Copyright © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.
AbstractPhenalamide is a bioactive secondary metabolite produced by Myxococcus stipitatus. We identified a 56 kb phenalamide biosynthetic gene cluster from M. stipitatus DSM 14675 by genomic sequence analysis and mutational analysis. The cluster is comprised of 12 genes (MYSTI_04318- MYSTI_04329) encoding three pyruvate dehydrogenase subunits, eight polyketide synthase modules, a non-ribosomal peptide synthase module, a hypothetical protein, and a putative flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding protein. Disruption of the MYSTI_04324 or MYSTI_04325 genes by plasmid insertion resulted in a defect in phenalamide production. The organization of the phenalamide biosynthetic modules encoded by the fifth to tenth genes (MYSTI_04320- MYSTI_04325) was very similar to that of the myxalamid biosynthetic gene cluster from Stigmatella aurantiaca Sg a15, as expected from similar backbone structures of the two substances. However, the loading module and the first extension module of the phenalamide synthase encoded by the first to fourth genes (MYSTI_04326-MYSTI_04329) were found only in the phenalamide biosynthetic gene cluster from M. stipitatus DSM 14675.
KeywordsMyxobacteria, Myxococcus stipitatus, secondary metabolite, phenalamide, biosynthetic gene