2019 ; Vol.29-7: 1053~1060
|Author||Ji Su Lee, Bomi Kim, Jae Hwan Kim, Minju Jeong, Seokwon Lim, Sanguine Byun|
|Place of duty||Incheon National University, Republic of Korea|
|Title||Effect of Differential Thermal Drying Conditions on the Immunomodulatory Function of Ginger|
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.2019 ;
|Abstract||Thermal drying is a common process used in the food industry for the modification of
agricultural products. However, while various studies have investigated the alteration in
physiochemical properties and chemical composition after drying, research focusing on the
relationship between different dehydration conditions and bioactivity is scarce. In the current
study, we prepared dried ginger under nine different conditions by varying the processing
time and temperature and compared their immunomodulatory effects. Interestingly,
depending on the drying condition, there were significant differences in the immunestimulating
activity of the dried ginger samples. Gingers processed at 50oC 1h displayed the
strongest activation of macrophages measured by TNF-α and IL-6 levels, whereas, freezedried
or 70oC- and 90oC-dried ginger showed little effect. Similar results were recapitulated in
primary bone marrow-derived macrophages, further confirming that different dehydration
conditions can cause significant differences in the immune-stimulating activity of ginger.
Induction of ERK, p38, and JNK signaling was found to be the major underlying molecular
mechanism responsible for the immunomodulatory effect of ginger. These results highlight
the potential to improve the bioactivity of functional foods by selectively controlling
|Key_word||Thermal drying, ginger, immunomodulation, MAPK pathway|
Escudero-Lopez B, Cerrillo I, Gil-Izquierdo A, HorneroMendez D, Herrero-Martin G, Berna G, et al. 2016. Effect of thermal processing on the profile of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of fermented orange juice. Int. J. Food. Sci. Nutr. 67: 779-788.
Jorge A, Almeida DM, Canteri MHG, Sequinel T, Kubaski ET, Tebcherani SM, et al. 2014. Evaluation of the chemical composition and colour in long-life tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) dehydrated by combined drying methods. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 49: 2001-2007.
Sharma KD, Karki S, Thakur NS, Attri S. 2012. Chemical composition, functional properties and processing of carrot—a review. J. Food Sci. Technol. 49: 22-32.
Price KR, Casuscelli F, Colquhoun IJ, Rhodes MJC. 1998. Composition and content of flavonol glycosides in broccoli florets (Brassica olearacea) and their fate during cooking. J. Sci. Food Agric. 77: 468-472.
Byun S, Shin SH, Park J, Lim S, Lee E, Lee C, et al. 2016. Sulforaphene suppresses growth of colon cancer-derived tumors via induction of glutathione depletion and microtubule depolymerization. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 60: 1068-1078.
Van Eylen D, Oey I, Hendrickx M, Van Loey A. 2007. Kinetics of the stability of broccoli (Brassica oleracea Cv. Italica) myrosinase and isothiocyanates in broccoli juice during pressure/temperature treatments. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55: 2163-2170.
Ali BH, Blunden G, Tanira MO, Nemmar A. 2008. Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): a review of recent research. Food Chem. Toxicol. 46: 409-420.
Byun S, Lim S, Mun JY, Kim KH, Ramadhar TR, Farrand L, et al. 2015. Identification of a Dual Inhibitor of Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) and p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase1 (S6K1) Pathways. J. Biol. Chem. 290: 23553-23562.
Abuajah CI, Ogbonna AC, Osuji CM. 2015. Functional components and medicinal properties of food: a review. J. Food Sci. Technol. 52: 2522-2529.
Ferreira SS, Passos CP, Madureira P, Vilanova M, Coimbra MA. 2015. Structure–function relationships of immunostimulatory polysaccharides: A review. Carbohydr. Polym. 132: 378-396.
Wang C-Z, Qi L-W, Yuan C-S. 2015. Cancer chemoprevention effects of ginger and its active constituents: potential for new drug discovery. Am. J. Chin. Med. 43: 1351-1363.
Azam F, Amer AM, Abulifa AR, Elzwawi MM. 2014. Ginger components as new leads for the design and development of novel multi-targeted anti-Alzheimer’s drugs: a computational investigation. Drug Des., Dev. Ther. 8: 2045-2059.
Backon J. 1991. Ginger in preventing nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a caveat due to its thromboxane synthetase activity and effect on testosterone binding. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 42: 163-164.
Butt MS, Sultan MT. 2011. Ginger and its health claims:molecular aspects. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 51: 383-393.
Jafarzadeh A, Nemati M. 2018. Therapeutic potentials of ginger for treatment of Multiple sclerosis: A review with emphasis on its immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. J. Neuroimmunol. 324:54-75.
Li Y, Tran VH, Duke CC, Roufogalis BD. 2012. Preventive and protective properties of Zingiber officinale (ginger) in diabetes mellitus, diabetic complications, and associated lipid and other metabolic disorders: a brief review. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2012:516870.
Nicoll R, Henein MY. 2009. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): a hot remedy for cardiovascular disease? Int. J. Cardiol. 131: 408-409.
Shukla Y, Singh M. 2007. Cancer preventive properties of ginger: a brief review. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45: 683-690.
Zeng GF, Zhang ZY, Lu L, Xiao DQ, Zong SH, He JM. 2013. Protective effects of ginger root extract on Alzheimer disease-induced behavioral dysfunction in rats. Rejuvenation Res. 16: 124-133.
Zheng W, Wang SY. 2001. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49: 5165-5170.
Shakya SR. 2015. Medicinal uses of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) improves growth and enhances immunity in aquaculture. Int. J. Chem. Stud. 3: 83-87.
Dhama K, Latheef SK, Mani S, Samad HA, Karthik K, Tiwari R, et al. 2015. Multiple beneficial applications and modes of action of herbs in poultry health and productionA review. Int. J. Phamacol. 11: 152-176.
Bartley JP, Jacobs AL. 2000. Effects of drying on flavour compounds in Australian-grown ginger (Zingiber officinale). J. Sci. Food Agric. 80: 209-215.
An K, Zhao D, Wang Z, Wu J, Xu Y, Xiao G. 2016. Comparison of different drying methods on Chinese ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): changes in volatiles, chemical profile, antioxidant properties, and microstructure. Food Chem. 197: 1292-1300.
Gümüşay ÖA, Borazan AA, Ercal N, Demirkol O. 2015. Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of tomatoes and ginger. Food Chem. 173: 156-162.
Lapenna A, De Palma M, Lewis CE. 2018. Perivascular macrophages in health and disease. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 18:689-702.
Shapouri-Moghaddam A, Mohammadian S, Vazini H, Taghadosi M, Esmaeili S-A, Mardani F, et al. 2018. Macrophage plasticity, polarization, and function in health and disease. J. Cell. Physiol. 233: 6425-6440.
Bedoret D, Wallemacq H, Marichal T, Desmet C, Calvo FQ, Henry E, et al. 2009. Lung interstitial macrophages alter dendritic cell functions to prevent airway allergy in mice. J. Clin. Invest. 119: 3723-3738.
Wang M, Fijak M, Hossain H, Markmann M, Nüsing RM, Lochnit G, et al. 2017. Characterization of the microenvironment of the testis that shapes the phenotype and function of testicular macrophages. J. Immunol. 198: 4327-4340.
Schwandt T, Schumak B, Gielen GH, Jüngerkes F, Schmidbauer P, Klocke K, et al. 2012. Expression of type I interferon by splenic macrophages suppresses adaptive immunity during sepsis. EMBO J. 31: 201-213.
Ruparelia N, Godec J, Lee R, Chai JT, Dall'Armellina E, McAndrew D, et al. 2015. Acute myocardial infarction activates distinct inflammation and proliferation pathways in circulating monocytes, prior to recruitment, and identified through conserved transcriptional responses in mice and humans. Eur. Heart J. 36: 1923-1934.
Tsujioka H, Imanishi T, Ikejima H, Kuroi A, Takarada S, Tanimoto T, et al. 2009. Impact of heterogeneity of human peripheral blood monocyte subsets on myocardial salvage in patients with primary acute myocardial infarction. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 54: 130-138.
Kurihara T, Warr G, Loy J, Bravo R. 1997. Defects in macrophage recruitment and host defense in mice lacking the CCR2 chemokine receptor. J. Exp. Med. 186: 1757-1762.
Nimmerjahn A, Kirchhoff F, Helmchen F. 2005. Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo. Science 308: 1314-1318.
Genard G, Lucas S, Michiels C. 2017. Reprogramming of tumor-associated macrophages with anticancer therapies:radiotherapy versus chemo- and immunotherapies. Front. Immunol. 8:828.
Sangwan A, Kawatra A, Sehgal S. 2014. Nutritional composition of ginger powder prepared using various drying methods. J. Food Sci. Technol. 51: 2260-2262.
Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZE, Baghdadi A, Tayebi-Meigooni A. 2018. Formation of 6-, 8- and 10-shogaol in ginger through application of different drying methods: altered antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Molecules 23 (pii):E1646.
Martinez FO, Sica A, Mantovani A, Locati M. 2008. Macrophage activation and polarization. Front. Biosci. 13:453-461.
Wynn TA, Chawla A, Pollard JW. 2013. Macrophage biology in development, homeostasis and disease. Nature 496: 445-455.
Mosser DM, Edwards JP. 2008. Exploring the full spectrum of macrophage activation. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 8: 958-969.
Rao KM. 2001. MAP kinase activation in macrophages. J. Leukocyte. Biol. 69: 3-10.
Lloberas J, Valverde-Estrella L, Tur J, Vico T, Celada A. 2016. Mitogen-activated protein kinases and mitogen kinase phosphatase 1: a critical interplay in macrophage biology. Front. Mol. Biosci. 3: 28.
Campbell J, Ciesielski CJ, Hunt AE, Horwood NJ, Beech JT, Hayes LA, et al. 2004. A novel mechanism for TNF-alpha regulation by p38 MAPK: involvement of NF-kappa B with implications for therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. J. Immunol. 173: 6928-6937.
Jung MY, Lee MK, Park HJ, Oh EB, Shin JY, Park JS et al, 2017. Heat-induced conversion of gingerols to shogaols in ginger as affected by heat type (dry or moist heat), sample type (fresh or dried), temperature and time. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 27: 687-693.