2019 ; Vol.29-8: 1204~1211
|Author||Juhui Jin, Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen, Changmu Kim, Doman Kim|
|Place of duty||Graduate School of International Agricultural Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang 25354, Republic of Korea|
|Title||Antimelanogenesis Effects of Fungal Exopolysaccharides Prepared from Submerged Culture of Fomitopsis castanea Mycelia|
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.2019 ;
|Abstract||Fungal exopolysaccharides are important natural products having diverse biological
functions. In this study, exopolysaccharides from Fomitopsis castanea mycelia (FEPS) were
prepared, and the highest mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity was found. FEPS were
prepared from cultivation broth by ethanol precipitation method. The extraction yield and
protein concentration of FEPS were 213.1 mg/l and 0.03%, respectively. FEPS inhibited
mushroom tyrosinase with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 16.5 mg/ml and
dose-dependently inhibited cellular tyrosinase activity (63.9% at 50 μg/ml, and 83.3% at
100 μg/ml) in the cell-free extract of SK-MEL-5 human melanoma cell and α-melanocytestimulating
hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated melanin formation in intact SK-MEL-5 human
melanoma cell. The IC50 of FEPS against NO production from RAW264.7 macrophage cells was
42.8 ± 0.64 μg/ml. By in vivo study using a zebrafish model, exposure of FEPS at 400 μg/ml to
dechorionated zebrafish embryos for 18 h decreased the pigment density, compared to that
without FEPS-treated control|
|Key_word||Fomitopsis castanea, exopolysaccharides, SK-MEL-5 human melanoma cells, zebrafish, tyrosinase|
Wasser SP. 2011. Current findings, future trends, and unsolved problems in studies of medicinal mushrooms. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 89: 1323-1332.
Bajpai VK, Rather IA, Park YH. 2016. Partially purified exopolysaccharide from Lactobacillus Sakei Probio 65 with antioxidant, α-glucosidase and tyrosinase inhibitory potential. J. Food Biochem. 40: 264-274.
Wang HX, Ng TB, Liu WK, Ooi VEC, Chang ST. 1996. Polysaccharide-peptide complexes from the cultured mycelia of the mushroom Coriolus versicolor and their culture medium activate mouse lymphocytes and macrophages. Int. J. Biochem. Cell B. 28: 601-607.
Lee JS, Cho JY, Hong EK. 2009. Study on macrophage activation and structural characteristics of purified polysaccharides from the liquid culture broth of Hericium erinaceus. Carbohydr. Polym. 78: 162-168.
Cheng JJ, Lin CY, Lur HS, Chen HP, Lu MK. 2008. Properties and biological functions of polysaccharides and ethanolic extracts isolated from medicinal fungus, Fomitopsis pinicola. Process Biochem. 43: 829-834.
Patel M, Patel U, Gupte S. 2018. Production of exopolysaccharide (EPS) and its application by new fungal isolates SGMP1 and SGMP2. Int. J. Environ. Agric. Res. 7: 511-523.
Al-Manhel AJA. 2017. Production of exopolysaccharide from local fungal isolate. Curr. Res. Nutr. Food Sci. 5: 338-346.
Alves MJ, Ferreira I, Martins A, Pintado M. 2012. Antimicrobial activity of wild mushroom extracts against clinical isolates resistant to different antibiotics. J. Appl. Microbiol. 113: 466-475.
Mahapatra S, Banerjee D. 2013. Fungal exopolysaccharide:production, composition and applications. Microbiol. Insights. 6: 1-16.
Orlandelli RC, Vasconcelos AFD, Azevedo JL, Corradi da Silva ML, Pamphile JA. 2016. Screening of endophytic sources of exopolysaccharides: preliminary characterization of crude exopolysaccharide produced by submerged culture of Diaporthe sp. JF766998 under different cultivation time. Biochim. Open. 2: 33-40.
Kim YJ, Uyama H. 2005. Tyrosinase inhibitors from natural and synthetic sources: structure, inhibition mechanism and perspective for the future. Cell Mol. Life. Sci. 62: 1707-1723.
Zhang X, Hu X, Hou A, Wang H. 2009. Inhibitory Effect of 2,4,2’,4’-tetrahydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-chalcone on tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 32: 86-90.
Briganti S, Camera E, Picardo M. 2003. Chemical and instrumental approaches to treat hyperpigmentation. Pigment Cell Res. 16: 101-110.
Arung ET, Shimizu K, Kondo R. 2006. Inhibitory effect of artocarpanone from Artocarpus heterophyllus on melanin biosynthesis. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 29: 1966-1969.
Hao L, Sheng Z, Lu J, Tao R, Jia S. 2016. Characterization and antioxidant activities of extracellular and intracellular polysaccharides from Fomitopsis pinicola. Carbohydr Polym. 141: 54-59.
Singh BK, Kim EK. 2019. P-protein: a novel target for skinwhitening agent. Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng. 24: 76-84.
Guo WK, Chi YJ. 2017. Purification and fermentation characteristics of exopolysaccharide from Fomitopsis castaneus Imaz. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 105: 213-218.
Peng Y, Han B, Liu W, Zhou R. 2016. Deproteinization and structural characterization of bioactive exopolysaccharides from Ganoderma sinense mycelium. Sep. Sci. Technol. 51: 359-369.
Lim J-M, Yun J-W. 2006. Enhanced production of exopolysaccharides by supplementation of toluene in submerged culture of an edible mushroom Collybia maculata TG-1. Process Biochem. 41: 1620-1626.
Woo HJ, Kang HK, Thi THN, Kim GE, Kim YM, Park JS, et al. 2012. Synthesis and characterization of ampelopsin glucosides using dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-1299CB4: glucosylation enhancing physicochemical properties. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 51: 311-318.
Kim HJ, Lee HJ, Park MK, Gang KJ, Byun HJ, Park JH, et al. 2014. Involvement of transglutaminase-2 in alpha-MSHinduced melanogenesis in SK-MEL-2 human melanoma cells. Biomol. Ther. (Seoul) 22: 207-212.
Cho UM, Choi DH, Yoo DS, Park SJ, Hwang HS. 2019. Inhibitory effect of ficin derived from fig latex on inflammation and melanin production in skin cells. Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng. 24: 288-297.
Hur J, Nguyen TTH, Park N, Kim J, Kim D. 2018. Characterization of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus and its bioactive properties. AMB Express. 8: 143.
Maeda K, Fukuda M. 1996. Arbutin: mechanism of its depigmenting action in human melanocyte culture. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 276: 765-769.
Funayama M, Arakawa H, Yamamoto R, Nishino T, Shin T, Murao S. 1995. Effects of alpha- and beta-arbutin on activity of tyrosinases from mushroom and mouse melanoma. Biosci. Biotechol. Biochem. 59: 143-144.
Chiou S-Y, Ha C-L, Wu P-S, Yeh C-L, Su Y-S, Li M-P, et al. 2015. Antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities of oil production residues from Camellia tenuifloria. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 16: 29522-29541.
Lee CH, Wu SB, Hong CH, Yu HS, Wei YH. 2013. Molecular mechanisms of UV-induced apoptosis and its effects on skin residential cells: the implication in UV-based phototherapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14: 6414-6435.
Nicolaus B, Kambourova M, Oner ET. 2010. Exopolysaccharides from extremophiles: from fundamentals to biotechnology. Environ. Technol.31: 1145-1158.
Poli A, Di Donato P, Abbamondi GR, Nicolaus B. 2011. Synthesis, production, and biotechnological applications of exopolysaccharides and polyhydroxyalkanoates by Archaea. Archaea 2011:693253.
Wu ZW, Yang ZJ, Gan D, Fan JL, Dai ZQ, Wang XQ, et al. 2014. Influences of carbon sources on the biomass, production and compositions of exopolysaccharides from Paecilomyces hepiali HN1. Biomass Bioenergy 67: 260-269.
Peng L, Li J, Liu Y, Xu ZH, Wu JY, Ding ZY, et al. 2016. Effects of mixed carbon sources on galactose and mannose content of exopolysaccharides and related enzyme activities in Ganoderma lucidum. RSC Adv. 6: 39284-39291.
Zhao W, Chai DD, Li HM, Chen T, Tang YJ. 2014. Significance of metal ion supplementation in the fermentation medium on the structure and anti-tumor activity of Tuber polysaccharides produced by submerged culture of Tuber melanosporum. Process Biochem. 49: 2030-2038.
Xu CP, Kim SW, Hwang HJ, Yun JW. 2006. Production of exopolysaccharides by submerged culture of an enthomopathogenic fungus, Paecilomyces tenuipes C240 in stirred-tank and airlift reactors. Bioresour. Technol. 97: 770-777.
Peng L, Qiao SK, Xu ZH, Guan F, Ding ZY, Gu ZH, et al. 2015. Effects of culture conditions on monosaccharide composition of Ganoderma lucidum exopolysaccharide and on activities of related enzymes. Carbohydr. Polym. 133: 104-109.
AW D. 1990. Microbial exopolymer secretions in open ocean environments: their role(s) in food webs and marine progresses. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 28: 73-153.
Manca MC, Lama L, Improta R, Esposito E, Gambacorta A, Nicolaus B. 1996. Chemical composition of two exopolysaccharides from Bacillus thermoantarcticus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 3265-3269.
Roméro-Graillet C, Aberdam E, Clément M, Ortonne JP, Ballotti R. 1997. Nitric oxide produced by ultravioletirradiated keratinocytes stimulates melanogenesis. J. Clin. Invest. 99: 635-642.
Dong Y, Wang H, Cao J, Ren J, Fan R, He X, et al. 2011. Nitric oxide enhances melanogenesis of alpaca skin melanocytes in vitro by activating the MITF phosphorylation. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 352: 255-60.
Joo T, Sowndhararajan K, Hong S, Lee J, Park SY, Kim S, et al. 2014. Inhibition of nitric oxide production in LPSstimulated RAW 264.7 cells by stem bark of Ulmus pumila L. Saudi. J. Biol. Sci. 21: 427-435.
Nappi A, Vass E. 2001. The effects of nitric oxide on the oxidations of l-dopa and dopamine mediated by tyrosinase and peroxidase. J. Biol. Chem. 276: 11214-22.
MacRae CA, Peterson RT. 2015. Zebrafish as tools for drug discovery. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 14: 721-731.
Tabassum N, Tai HM, Jung DW, Williams DR. 2015. Fishing for nature's hits: establishment of the zebrafish as a model for screening antidiabetic natural products. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2015: 287847.
Choi TY, Kim JH, Ko DH, Kim CH, Hwang JS, Ahn S, et al. 2007. Zebrafish as a new model for phenotype-based screening of melanogenic regulatory compounds. Pigment Cell Res. 20: 120-127.
Colanesi S, Taylor KL, Temperley ND, Lundegaard PR, Liu D, North TE, et al. 2012. Small molecule screening identifies targetable zebrafish pigmentation pathways. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 25(2):131-43