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Research article | 2014-08-28Research article | 2010-09-28
Research articleMicrobial Ecology and Diversity
Biofilm Formation and Indole-3-Acetic Acid Production by Two Rhizospheric Unicellular Cyanobacteria
1Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the Punjab, Lahore-54590, Pakistan, 2Department of Marine Microbiology, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), NL-4400 AC Yerseke, The Netherlands, 3Department of Aquatic Microbiology, IBED, University of Amsterdam, 1090 GE Amsterdam, The NetherlandsReceived: October 29, 2013; Accepted: April 7, 2014
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2014; 24(8): 1015-1025
Published August 28, 2014
Copyright © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.
AbstractMicroorganisms that live in the rhizosphere play a pivotal role in the functioning and maintenance of soil ecosystems. The study of rhizospheric cyanobacteria has been hampered by the difficulty to culture and maintain them in the laboratory. The present work investigated the production of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the potential of biofilm formation on the rhizoplane of pea plants by two cyanobacterial strains, isolated from rice rhizosphere. The unicellular cyanobacteria Chroococcidiopsis sp. MMG-5 and Synechocystis sp. MMG-8 that were isolated from a rice rhizosphere, were investigated. Production of IAA by Chroococcidiopsis sp. MMG-5 and Synechocystis sp. MMG-8 was measured under experimental conditions (pH and light). The bioactivity of the cyanobacterial auxin was demonstrated through the alteration of the rooting pattern of Pisum sativum seedlings. The increase in the concentration of L-tryptophan and the time that this amino acid was present in the medium resulted in a significant enhancement of the synthesis of IAA (r > 0.900 at p = 0.01). There was also a significant correlation between the concentration of IAA in the supernatant of the cyanobacteria cultures and the root length and number of the pea seedlings. Observations made by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed the presence of cyanobacteria on the surface of the roots and also provided evidence for the penetration of the cyanobacteria in the endorhizosphere. We show that the synthesis of IAA by Chroococcidiopsis sp. MMG-5 and Synechocystis sp. MMG-8 occurs under different environmental conditions and that the auxin is important for the development of the seedling roots and for establishing an intimate symbiosis between cyanobacteria and host plants.
KeywordsAuxin, Bioassay, Cyanobacterial biofilms, Chroococcidiopsis sp, Synechocystis sp, Indole 3-Acetic Acid